Waves, Fields & Nuclear Energy. Contents. Oscillations & Waves Capacitance Gravitational & Electric Fields Magnetic Effects of Currents Nuclear Applications. Circular Motion. Consider an object going round in a circle of radius r:  speed is constant  velocity changes s = r
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 speed is constant
 velocity changes
s = r
 angular velocity
ω = 2f = r/v
 centripetal acceleration
a = v2/r = ω2r
 centripetal force
f = ma = mv2/r = mω2r
(car suspensions, bridges swaying, bells ringing)
 light damping reduces oscillations slowly
 heavy damping reduces oscillations quickly
 critical damping stops the oscillation within one cycle
v = fλ
v = velocity (m/s)
f = frequency (Hz) or (1/s)
λ = wavelength (m) λ
 Light is split by travelling through very thin slits called a diffraction grating
 Light is split because it is composed of different wavelengths
 Each of these wavelengths diffracts at a different angle
d sin = mλ
d = slit width
m = spectrum order number (1st: m= 1, 2nd: m = 2 etc.)
λ = wavelength
NB: “m” is sometimes denoted as “n” instead
 therefore at maximum, d = mλ
 consists of two metal plates separated by a layer of insulating material dielectric
capacitance (F) = charge (C) /voltage (V)
C = Q / V
energy = charge x voltage
capacitance = charge / voltage
Thus: E = ½CV2
RC = time constant
t½ = half life
 Every particle of matter in the Universe attracts every other particle with a gravitational force that is proportional to the products of the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them
Thus: F = GMm/r2 G = 6.67x1011Nm2kg2
Thus: g = GM/r2 r = radius from centre of orbit!
 Work done on a unit mass in moving it to that point from a point remote from all other masses
 the zero point of gravitational potential is at infinity
Vg = GM/r Vg = gravitational potential
F = kQ1Q2/r2 k =
0 = 8.851012 C2N1m2 (F/m)
E = F/Q
This is radial for point charges:
 uniform field: E = V/d
the magnetism is always there
 Increasing the current flowing through the wire
 Adding loops on the coil (loops are long lengths of wire)
 Placing an iron or steel core inside the coil
Basic electromagnet
 When two magnets are placed close to each other, they the fields affect each other produce a force
 When creating a force, use Fleming’s LH Rule to determine in which way the motor will spin

 increasing the current
 increasing the number of coils
 increasing the magnetic field strength (stronger magnet)
 current
 magnetic field strength
 length of wire inside magnetic field
F = BIl B = magnetic field strength or flux density
(Tesla)
When a wire is at an angle to the magnetic field… F = BIl sin
 current (flow of charge)
 magnetic field strength
 velocity of charged particle
F = BqV B = magnetic field strength or flux density
(Tesla)
When a charge is at an angle to the magnetic field… F = BqV sin
F = mv2/r BqV = mv2/r V = Bqr/m
 changing the strength of the magnetic field
 move the coil so it enters the field at an angle
E = mc2 c = 3x108m/s
(J) = (kgm2/s2)
1) isn’t too low (will bounce off nucleus)
2) isn’t too high (will go through nucleus)
3) is correct to be captured by the attractive force in between nucleons  this can result in a chain reaction
 overcome electrostatic repulsion from the protons
 overcome the repulsive strong force which is found outside the region of the strong force
 greater power per kilogram of fuel used
 raw materials are cheap and readily available
 reaction is not radioactive
 Strict regulations
 Serious accidents involving radiation leaks have occurred
 Disposal of radioactive waste must be carried out carefully
 Definition: changing the nuclei of elements by exposing them to particles
 Particles have to travel slow enough to be captured by the nucleus
 used in medicine