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Introduction to Metabolism Joe vs. Josie Jack Blazyk Professor of Biochemistry Associate Dean for Research & Grants. Carbohydrates. Starch, Sucrose, Lactose mostly Glucose. Lipids. Triglycerides Contains 3 Fatty Acids. Proteins. Polymer of Amino Acids. Contain N in addition to C, H, O.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1
Introduction to MetabolismJoe vs. JosieJack BlazykProfessor of BiochemistryAssociate Dean for Research & Grants
major dietary fuel molecules

Carbohydrates

Starch, Sucrose, Lactose

mostly Glucose

Lipids

Triglycerides

Contains 3 Fatty Acids

Proteins

Polymer of Amino Acids

Contain N in addition to C, H, O

Major Dietary Fuel Molecules
what is essential in our diet
What is essential in our diet?

Proteins

Amino acids

Lipids

Unsaturated fatty acids

Carbohydrates

Glucose ??

how do we store our energy reserves

Carbohydrates

e.g., Glucose

Lipids

e.g., Fatty Acids

Proteins

Amino acids

How do we store our energy reserves?

<1%

Glycogen

Liver

Muscle

85%

Triglycerides

Adipose

15%

Where?

slide7

Located in mitochondrial matrix

HS - CoA

S - CoA

O

=

CH3 - C -

3 H2O

slide8

Why are lipids our primary energy reserves?

1 gram of carbohydrate = 4 Cal/g

1 gram of protein = 4 Cal/g

1 gram of fat = 9 Cal/g

why are lipids our primary energy reserves

Carbohydrates

e.g., Glucose

C6H12O6

Lipids

e.g., Palmitic Acid

C16H32O2

Proteins

e.g., Glycine

Why are lipids our primary energy reserves?

4 Cal/g

9 Cal/g

More Reduced

4 Cal/g

C2H5O2N

slide10

Joe

16 yo, 5’10” tall, 160 pounds

Joe eats 4000+ calories per day

After 6 months, Joe weighs 210 pounds

slide11

Joe drinks 6 to 8 20-ounce Cokes per day

Previous Nutrition Label

1440 - 1920 Cal/day

slide13

Joe

5’10”

Initial BMI

23.0

Final BMI

30.1

160 lbs.

210 lbs.

slide14

What is happening in Joe’s liver?

What is its metabolic response to feasting?

well fed liver

Glycogenesis

Well-Fed Liver

Glycolysis

Pentose

Shunt

Triglyceride

Synthesis

Fatty Acid

Synthesis

slide16

What is happening in Joe’s adipose tissue?

What is its metabolic response

to feasting?

well fed adipose
Well-Fed Adipose

Pentose

Shunt

Glycolysis

Cholesterol

Synthesis

Triglyceride

Synthesis

Fatty Acid

Synthesis

slide18

What is happening in Joe’s skeletal muscle?

What is its metabolic response

to feasting?

well fed muscle
Well-Fed Muscle

Glycogenesis

slide20

Josie

16 yo, 5’6” tall, 130 pounds

Josie eats < 600 calories per day

After 6 months, Josie weighs 105 pounds

slide22

Josie

5’6”

Initial BMI

21.0

Final BMI

16.9

130 lbs.

105 lbs.

slide23

What is happening in Josie’s liver?

What is its metabolic response to fasting?

fasting liver

Glycogenolysis

Fasting Liver

Gluconeogenesis

Ketone Body Synthesis

Fatty Acid

Oxidation

slide25

What is happening in Josie’s adipose tissue?

What is its metabolic response

to fasting?

fasting adipose

No Uptake

Fasting Adipose

Triglyceride

Breakdown

Fatty Acid

Oxidation

slide27

What is happening in Josie’s skeletal muscle?

What is its metabolic response

to fasting?

fasting muscle

No Uptake

Fasting Muscle

Ketone Body

Utilization

Fatty Acid

Oxidation

fasting liver1

Glycogenolysis

Fasting Liver

Gluconeogenesis

Ketone Body Synthesis

Fatty Acid

Oxidation

slide31

O

=

CH3 –C– CH2– COOH

OH

_

CH3 –CH– CH2– COOH

Palmitic Acid

CH3-(CH2)14-COOH

vs.

Acetoacetate

b-Hydroxybutyrate

slide32

O

O

=

=

CH3 –C– CH2– COOH

CH3 –C– CH3

Acetoacetate

Acetone

+ CO2

well fed state

Glucose

Insulin

Glycogen

CO2 + H2O

Glucose

Glucose

aa

aa

CO2 + H2O

Urea

Protein

Chylomicrons

Pyruvate

TG

TG

VLDL

CO2 + H2O

Lactate

Glycogen

Lactate

Well-Fed State

Brain

Pancreas

Gut

Portal Vein

Liver

Adipose

Lymphatics

Muscle

RBC

early fasting state

Glucose

Glucagon

Glycogen

CO2 + H2O

Glucose

FA

Pyruvate

FA

CO2 + H2O

CO2 + H2O

Lactate

Lactate

Early Fasting State

Brain

Pancreas

Gut

Portal Vein

Adipose

Liver

Lymphatics

Muscle

RBC

extended fasting state

Glucagon

CO2 + H2O

Glucose

KB

Glycerol

Urea

FA

FA

CO2 + H2O

Pyruvate

CO2 + H2O

aa

Protein

Cortisol

Lactate

Extended Fasting State

Brain

Pancreas

Gut

Portal Vein

Adipose

Liver

Lymphatics

RBC

Muscle

slide36

O

O

=

=

CH3 –C– CH2– COOH

CH3 –C– CH2– COO

OH

OH

_

_

CH3 –CH– CH2– COOH

CH3 –CH– CH2– COO

Acidosis

Acetoacetate

+

+

H

H

-

pH

b-Hydroxybutyrate

-

slide37

+

Compensation

H

-

HCO3

+

H2O + CO2

H2CO3

Respiration

pH