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4 Major Molecules of Living Things

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  1. 4 Major Molecules of Living Things

  2. Organic Molecules The key thing to remember is that biochemistry is the chemistry of the living world. Plants, animals, single-celled organisms... They all use the same basic chemical compounds to live their lives. Biochemistry is not about the cells or the organisms. It's about the smallest parts of those organisms, the molecules. It's also about the cycles that happen to create those compounds.

  3. Carbohydrate WHAT'S IT USED FOR? A carbohydrate is called an organic compound because it contains carbon. Sugars, which are carbohydrate-based compounds, provide living things with energy and act as substances used for structure. Where does it come from? Carbohydrates come from plants, or plant products, mostly. Examples: vegetables, pasta and grains (grasses), anything kind of sugar, fruit, etc.

  4. Carbohydrate The chemical structure of a carbohydrate has a combination of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, but does NOT have a carboxylic acid, amino group, or phosphate.

  5. Proteins Proteins are made from chains of amino acids. "What is an amino acid?" There are over twenty, and each one of them is a little different. Amino acids are used in every cell of your body and are used to build the proteins you need to survive. All organisms need some proteins, whether they are used in muscles or as simple structures in the cell membrane. Even though all organisms have differences, they still have one thing in common, the need for basic chemical building blocks.

  6. Proteins Where does it come from? Animals and animal products, with the exception of a few plants. Why do you need it/ How does your body use it? All organisms need some proteins, whether they are used in muscles or as simple structures in the cell membrane.

  7. Chemical Structure All proteins will have the carbon backbone, but will have an additional amino group

  8. Lipids Where does it come from? Lipids are another type of organic molecule (contains carbon). When you think of fats, oils, wax, and some hormones, you should know that they are lipids. Lipids are also used to make steroids. Some lipids are consumed, such as butter, oil, and animal fat. But SOME lipids are made within the body, so they are NOT consumed, like hormones and body fat.

  9. Lipids Why do you need it/ How does your body use it? Waxes are used to coat and protect things in nature. Bees make wax. Your ears make wax. Plant leaves even have wax on the outside of their leaves. It can be used for structures such as the bees' honeycombs. Waxes can also be used for protection. Plants use wax to stop evaporation of water from their leaves.

  10. Notice the structure of a fatty acid, or lipid. A carbon chain with double or single bond. CHOO

  11. Lipids A steroid has interlocking rings, such as the ones below. It will look like a pentagon or hexagon.

  12. Nucleic Acids Where does it come from? The nucleic acids are the building blocks of living organisms. You may have heard of DNA described the same way. Your body MAKES nucleic acids. They are NOT consumed. DNA is just one type of nucleic acid. Some other types are RNA, mRNA, and tRNA. All of these "Na's" work together to help cells replicate and build proteins.

  13. Nucleic Acids Why do you need it/ How does your body use it? All of these "Na's“, DNA and RNA, work together to help cells replicate and build proteins. Also, DNA is your genetic code, and is used to pass traits on to your offspring.

  14. Contains phosphorus

  15. Levels of Organization

  16. Some elements that make up the Human Body

  17. All organisms are composed of organic compounds…. In physics, a material that contains carbon and hydrogen and usually other elements such as nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen. Organic compounds can be found in nature or they can be synthesized in the laboratory. Most organic compounds contain carbon, and some sort of gas .