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Cyanobacteria(only chl a) PowerPoint Presentation
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Cyanobacteria(only chl a)

Cyanobacteria(only chl a)

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Cyanobacteria(only chl a)

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  1. Cyanobacteria(only chl a) • Eg. Oscillatoria, Synecococcus • Phycobilins (green color), in phycobilisomes, chlorophyll a • phycoerythrin-red, phycocyanin-blue • reaction center - thyllakoids (lamellar membranes) • carboxysomes- Rubisco- CO2 fixation • heterocysts • Significance - primary production, nuisance blooms • Prochlorophytes (chl a and b) NO phycobilins

  2. Cyanobacteria-oxygenic phototrophs Bacteria

  3. GRAM positive Bacteria • Non-sporulating low GC, eg. Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, "Epulopiscium" • Endospore forming low GC, eg. Bacillus, Clostridium acetobutylicum • Cell wall-less low GC (Mycoplasma), compare Thermoplasma • High GC (Coryneform and Propionic), swiss cheese • High GC (Mycobacterium), Unique lipids= mycolic acids, TB, leprosy • Filamentous, High GC, -Actinomycetes; Streptomyces and antibiotics

  4. Chlamydia • intracellular parasites of humans (get ATP from host) • like Planctomycetes, they lack peptidoglycan in cell walls • psittacosis

  5. Planctomycetes • Nature Volume 400 Number 6743 p 446-449, Missing lithotroph identified as new planctomycete • The new planctomycete grows extremely slowly, dividing only once every two weeks. • The identification of this bacterium as the one responsible for anaerobic oxidation of ammonia makes an important contribution to the problem of unculturability. • budding, most are heterotrophs • odd cell divsion, stalked • Isosphaera pallidum, hot spring isolate

  6. Bacteroides and flavobacteria • rumen, gram - anaerobe, grow heterotrophically, best with bile acids

  7. Green sulfur bacteria • eg. Chlorobium • often appear brown because of carotenoids • anoxygenic photosynthesis, efficient energetically, NADPH reduced directly • sulfur on the outside • more tolerant of high H2S • very small cells • Has chlorosome

  8. Spirochetes • Slender motile cells • move like corkscrew • axial element, flagella in periplasmic space, 2 sets of 'fibrils' • freeliving and interesting symbiosis (eg termite guts) J. R. Leadbetter, T. M. Schmidt, J. R. Graber, and J. A. Breznak. 1999. Acetogenesis from H2 Plus CO2 by Spirochetes from Termite Guts. Science 283: 686-689. • Borellia (lymes disease). Genome. • Complete Genome Sequence of Treponema pallidum, the Syphilis Spirochete. Science 1998 July 17; 281:375-388.

  9. Deinococcus/Thermus • THERMUS • Taq polymerase, • heterotrophs, aerobes • often pigmented

  10. DEINOCOCCUS • radiation resistant and desiccation resistance • > 100rad radiation + 30 000Gy (humans killed by < 5Gy) • very effective DNA repair mechanism

  11. Green non-sulfur Bacteria • Chloroflexus • Photoheterotroph, anaerobe • photoautotroph, anaerobe (sulfide and H2 are e-donors) • Reaction center similar to purple S • chemoheterotroph and aerobe in the dark! • Used an unusual pathway to fix CO2 (hydroxyproprionate pathway) • also has chlorosome

  12. Ward et al., MMBR, 62:1353

  13. Other thermophiles • Thermotoga toga, heterotrophic thermophile Thermodesulfurobacterium • ether-linked lipids like Archaea (Ammonifex, Gram + has this too) Desulfobacterium • S-reducing chemolithotroph recently descibed lineage from deep-sea vents

  14. Aquifex-Hydrogenobacter et al. • most are chemolithotrophs, "knall gas" reaction • thermophiles • small genome