Explaining Crime and Delinquency. CC200 Youth Justice Chapters 5 and 6. Social policy and theory. Social Responsibility Perspective – crime is an individual responsibility (nature). Social Problems Perspective – crime is a manifestation of social problems (nurture).
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Chapters 5 and 6
What actions or responses to aggression displayed by children may, in fact, encourage greater aggression?
How do biological, environmental, psychological components work together in explanations for aggression?
Individuals are hedonistic beings who seek to maximize pleasure and minimize pain.
Individuals make rational decisions by engaging in cost/benefit analyses.
Crime is repugnant and morally wrong.
Supernumerary fingers and toes
Nose twisted, upturned, or flattened, or aquiline or beaklike
Receding chin, or excessive long, or short and flat
He never claimed that the born criminal made up more than 40% of the total criminal population.
This has led to research in the areas of brain damage, epileptic disorders, and endocrine disorders and the direct impact that psychological disorders may have on criminal behaviors.
Biological factors may only be indirectly linked to criminal behaviors.
As well, personality is made up of three forces:
The id – biological drives
The ego – which controls and directs the id
The super-ego – or conscience.
Criminal behavior results when the internal controls found in the ego and super-ego fail to restrain the primitive, aggressive urges of the id.
Individuals who are rewarded, or escape punishment, for deviant and/or criminal behaviors will continue to engage in them.
These theories are still based on a primary assumption of individual badness and pathology.
They may search for alternative and illegitimate ways to meet the goals.
The resulting strain could manifest itself in several ways.
Other youth could reject these standards and develop their own working-class expectations.
This would allow the participant to achieve the status he/she craved.
This would lead to the development of criminal sub-cultures.
Fails to address the gendered nature of crime.
Sutherland developed concepts to assist in understanding how differential associations vary in terms of quality and strength.
Intensity – the importance to the potential delinquent of the individual from whom he/she is learning.
It has highlighted the role of learning and relationships with others in regards to criminal activities.
It has provided a way of exploring why, when facing similar situations (such as poverty or racism) some people engage in criminal behaviors while others do not.
Learning approaches need to incorporate an analysis of the influence of the social environment on the process of learning criminal behaviors.
Youth may seek out others who approve and encourage the use of violence.
Same fundamental criticisms that apply to differential association theory apply to this theory –the influence of social structure is played down.
Not all youth in disorganized communities engage in delinquent/criminal behaviors.
Belief – the degree of respect held by individuals for the framework of moral order and law of conventional society.
Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990) argue that poor parental supervision or ineffective punishment when combined with situations that are conductive to delinquency lead to poor self-control for youth and are the main reasons youth engage in criminal behaviors.
The majority of these youth feel shame and remorse over their actions.
Denial of the victim – the youth argues that the victim ‘had it coming to them’ or ‘deserved it’.
Or that gangs or friends forced him/her to do what he/she did.
More equal distribution of labor.
More equal expectations of control between parents and children.
Sons and daughters encouraged to prepare for participation in outside workforce.
Egalitarian families will be characterized by smaller gender differences in delinquency.