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In the name of God

Copepods as a live food

Presented to the faculty of marine science

Khoram-shahr university of marine science and technology





Higher nutritional value

Match better the nutritional requirments

As nauplii or copepodits or adults

Typical zigzag movement

Cleaning of the fish larvae rearing tanks

Diversity of size spectra among and within species by numerous development stages

More natural diet for fish larvae

Better development,growth,nutritional content and survival of the larvae(Evjemo et al.,2004)

taxonomy largest class of crustaceans more than 11 500 species have been classified
Taxonomy Largest class of CrustaceansMore than 11,500 species have been classified

Cyclopoid & Harpacticoid


morphology and anatomy
Morphology and Anatomy

a)Calanoid b)Cyclopoid


biology and life cycle
Biology and life cycle
  • An important link between phytoplankton & higher trophic levels
  • Most adults 1-5 mm in length depends on species
  • Mainly suspension feeder on phytoplankton & bacteria
  • The males are smaller and lower in abundance
  • Life span 6-12 month
  • Dormant or resting eggs
  • Diapause stage usually between (CII) to adult female
  • Euryhaline(1-38ppt) and Eurythermal(0-30 C˚)
  • Most are neritic (near of shore in 0-20 m depth)
  • Dormancy
  • To date 44 Calanoid species with resting eggs
  • Easier rearing under intensive condition
  • Higher productivity than calanoids
  • High fecundity and short generation time
  • Use of large variety of food
  • Extreme tolerance (15-70 ppt _ 17-30 C˚)
  • Grazing organic debris from stable substrate
  • Small size(adult typically 1 mm in length)
  • Density up to 40,000 Ind/L
  • Mass culture in relatively small units
  • Short life cycle

Tisbe sp. 7-29 days

Tigriopus sp. 12-21 days


Omnivorous (phytoplankton , yeast and other foods)

Some species 4-5 days development (Apocyclops royi)

Production 16000/L (Shirgur, 1989)

Optimal adult stocking density (Apocyclops panamensis) 2560 adult/L

Calanoids Harpacticoids

Acartia spp. Tisbe holothuriae

Euritemora affinis Tigriopus japonicus

Calanus finmarchicus Tisbenta elongata

C. Helgolandicus Schizoperaelatensis

Pseudocalanuc elongatus


Oithona spp.

Apocyclops spp.

nutritional quality
Nutritional quality
  • High protein content(44-52%)
  • Good amino acid profile(except methionine & histidine)
  • Fatty acid composition(depends on that of the diet)
  • Higher levels of digestive enzymes
  • Faster passage through the gut and better digestion than Artemia(Pederson,1984)
  • A natural omega-3 profile

Sediment collection

Plankton net

Light traps

Pump system

culture systems
Culture systems

Batch culture

Continous culture

Extensive culture

Intensive culture


Batch culture

  • Small flasks 150 adults of both sexes
  • 20 L carboys or tanks
  • Larger tanks (100 L for pelagic ones)
  • Initially small seawater volume
  • Increasing volume as the culture grows
extensive production
Extensive production
  • A mixture of copepods
  • Usually start with diapause eggs
  • Outdoor 1000-1500 m² pond
  • Averagedepth of 1 m


continous production
Continous production

Basis tanks

  • 200 L grey PVC tanks
  • Under optimal hygienic condition
  • Filtered seawater (1 μm) with proper salinity & temperature
  • Gentle aeration
  • Proper density & male/female ratio
  • 5% water siphoning daily
  • Emptied and cleaned 2-3 times per year
continous production20
Continous production

Growth tanks

  • Maximal density 6000/L
  • 24-48 h incubation
  • Adding of phytoplankton
continous production21
Continous production

Harvest tanks

  • 300-500 L
  • 80% oxygen saturation
  • Emptied and cleaned more regularly
intensive production
Intensive production
  • Indoor,clear plastic bags suspended from a frame
  • Tanks (250,1000,3000,25000 L)
  • 1 μm filtered water
  • Low aeration
  • Photoperiod often 24 h light
  • Feeding
  • Monitoring of Do,pH,temperature and salinity
egg collection
Egg collection

By sieve

Egg collection system


  • 20 L plastic buckets (18 L working volume)
  • Copepod nauplii 200 ind/ml
  • 3 , 6 and 12 hour period
  • A1-super selco
  • 0.6 mg per liter in seawater 32 ppt
  • Isochrysis galbana
  • Nannochloropsis oculata
  • Dormancy during the lifecycle
  • Dormant eggs
  • Depending on photoperiod & temperature
  • Obligatory “resting or refraction” phase
  • Resistant to disinfection (reduction of contaminant risks)
  • As an inoculum to initiate culture
  • As a stock after population crashes
none diapause eggs
None-diapause eggs
  • As a reservoir of nauplii to restart production
  • As a supply of nauplii for fish larvae
  • For 2-6 weeks
  • Cleaning and washing through sieve
  • 5,000,000 eggs per 50 ml Falcon tube
  • Stable around 1 C˚

Hatching ratio

diapause eggs storage
Diapause eggs storage
  • Sediment stored at 2-4 C˚
  • Is brought in suspension
  • Sieved through 150 and 60 μm
  • 1:1 solution of sucrose and distilled water
  • Centrifuging(300 rpm for 5 min)
  • Supernatant through a double sieve of 100 and 40 μm
  • Disinfection (FAM-30 or Buffodine)

(subitanous and diapause eggs)

  • Washed with 0.2 μm filtered seawater
  • Cultured or stored
none diapause eggs activation
None-diapause eggs activation
  • 50,000 eggs per liter
  • Rinsing the eggs on a proper sieve
  • Incubation 48 h at 25 C˚
diapause eggs activation
Diapause eggs activation
  • Increasing anoxic storage time at 4 C˚= Decrease in hatching ratio
  • For acartia tonsa (85% fresh hatch)
  • A linear decrease of 4% every 20 days (Peck & Holste, 2006)
as live food for
As live food for…

Gadus mohua

Lutjanus campechanus

Coryphaena hipporus

Epinephelus coioides

Acantopagrus cuvieri

Platichthys flesus

Hippoglossus hippoglossus

Morane saxatillis


use by fish larvae
Use by fish larvae
  • Mouth size of the predator
  • Prey width
  • Prey movement
  • Concentration of both prey and predator
  • Feeding prey
  • Gain competence for capture
  • Phototaxy
  • … illumination and prey contrast

best sizes 30-60 μm width

<100 μm length


-Patrick,L., P.Sorgeloos.,1996.Manual on the production and use of live food,FAO press.

-Nancy,H.Marcus.,2005.Calanoidcopepods,resting eggs and aquaculture.Copepods in aquaculture.blackwell publishing,3-9.

-Kleppel,G.S.,Sarah E.Hazzard .,Carol A.Burkart.,2005.Maximizing the nutritional values of copepods in aquaculture;managed versus balancednutrition.Copepods in aquaculture.blackwell publishing,49-60.

- Ronald P.Phelps.,Gede S.Sumiarsa.,Emily E.Lipman.,Hsiang0pin Lan.,Komarey Kao Moss.,Allen D.Davis.,2005.Intensivean extensive production techniques to provide copepod nauplii for feeding larval Red snapper.Copepods inaquaculture,Blackwell publishing,151-168.

-Patricia,J.O Bryen.,Cheng-sheng Lee.,2005.Cultureof copepods and application to marine finfish larval rearing workshop discussionsummary.Copepods in aquaculture.Blackwell publishing,245-254.

-Nancy H.Marcus.,Jeffery A.Wilcox.,2007.A guide to the meso-scale production of theCopepod Acartia tonsa.Florida state university press.

-Josianne G.stottrup.,2006.Areview on the status and progress in rearing copepods for marinelarviculture.Danish Institute for Fisheries Research.


اگر تنهاترين تنها شوم،

باز هم خدا هست.


Thanks for your attention