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Food as Medicine

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  1. FoodasMedicine Oregon State University Extension Service Sharon Johnson M.S.

  2. We take food inside our bodies and turn it into us. Americans are the most overfed and undernourished people in the world. Source: Digestive Wellness, 2005 What’s true….

  3. Of the 10 leading causes of death in the U.S. four, including the top three, are associated with dietary excess Coronary artery disease Some types of Cancer Stroke Diabetes Source: USDA Food Review What’s true…..

  4. Food as Medicine? If you have more than four physicians, nutrition is probably the medical answer Abraham Hofler M.D. PhD

  5. Here’s (part of) the problem…. • Nearly half our calories come from nutritionally depleted foods • We get 19% of our calories from sugar and 21% from fats and oils Source: Digestive Wellness

  6. Food as Medicine? As we age, we need… • Less food • More nutrient-dense food • Colorful food

  7. Less Food? • Consider using a 9” plate • 1/2 the plate should be vegetables • 1/4 quarter should be whole grains • 1/4 quarter should be protein Source: Idaho Plate Method/Meals Made Easy

  8. Nutrient-dense food? • Every day: 2 cups of fruit • Every day: 2 1/2 cups of vegetables • Every day: 3 cups of low fat milk (or an equivalent) Source: 2005 New Dietary Guidelines, 2000 calories

  9. More colorful food? • “Your plate should look like a pile of color crayons” • Colorful foods (red, yellow/orange, blue/purple, green, white) actually prevent disease conditions Source: www.5aday.gov

  10. The advantages of color in your diet–it can treat disease • Vitamins and minerals • Antioxidants (to neutralize free radicals) • Fiber • Lessened likelihood of overweight/obesity Source: USDA New Dietary Guidelines

  11. What we don’t need….. Food additives • Earlier times: people preserved foods with sugar, salt and vinegar • Currently,3,000 food additives used in the U.S. • Average individual intake of preservatives: 14 pounds/year Source: Digestive Wellness

  12. Color your food and prevent disease? Red fruits, vegetables • High in vitamin C, folate and fiber • Reduce inflammation Source: The Color Code: A Revolutionary Plan for Optimum Health, 2002; www.5aday.gov

  13. Color your food and prevent disease? Orange-yellow fruits, vegetables • Cancer fighters • Reduce risk of stroke • Promote heart health • Foster immune system health Source: Harvard Nurse’s Health Study; The Color Code

  14. Color your food and prevent disease? Green fruits and vegetables • Vision protection • Lowers risk of some cancers • Promotes strong bones and teeth Source: www.5aday.gov

  15. Color your food and prevent disease? Blue-Purple fruits and vegetables • Lowers risk of some cancers • Improves memory; reverses mental decline • Improves urinary tract health Source:www.5aday.gov

  16. Color your food and prevent disease? White fruits and vegetables • Promote heart health • Support cholesterol levels that are already healthy • Lower risk of some cancers Source: www.5aday.gov

  17. As we age, we need to…. • Select carbohydrates wisely • Focus on whole grains • Reduce use of processed foods

  18. Select carbohydrates wisely… Choose: • Fruits • Vegetables • Whole grains

  19. Eat three or more ounce-equivalents of whole grain products each day Make half your grains whole Source: www.mypyramid.gov Focus on whole grains…

  20. Reduce use of processed foods • Read nutrition labels • Read nutrition labels • Read nutrition labels • Read nutrition labels • Read nutrition labels • Read nutrition labels

  21. Use the nutrition information on your food label! • Look at serving size first • Note calories/serving • Fat: <65g (<20g saturated fat) • Cholesterol: <300mg • Sodium: <2,400 (1 tsp) • Potassium: <3500mg • Carbohydrates: 300mg Fiber: 25g Recommended daily: 2,000 calorie base

  22. Make it a habit: Take medications with water “Eat your water” Remember: older adults may not recognize the thirst sensation Hydrate (drink enough water)

  23. As we age, we need to… • Select protein carefully; eat seafood • Eat low fat meats, dairy • Consider replacing meat with beans and legumes

  24. As we age, we need… • More healthy fats (olive, canola oil) • “Good” fats (polyunsaturated/ monounsaturated) • As little “hydrogenation” as possible

  25. Fats and Aging Fat is not necessarily bad for you: • 20-35% of our calories should be (good) fat • We even need a little saturated fat • NO TRANSFATS

  26. As we age we need to need to…. • Focus on smaller portions • Eat more slowly • Increase our fiber intake

  27. As we age, we need to… • Eat variety (don’t rely on vitamins and food supplements) • Eat regularly (eat right after you arise) • Eat the same amount at each meal Source: Living a Healthy Life with Chronic Conditions, 2006

  28. Why is it so hard to eat wisely? • Food choices are not always under our control • Food comforts us • Food is everywhere • Eating out is “in”

  29. Eat often Watch portions Plan for ‘problem foods’ Keep colorful, foods handy Understand that some foods “beckon”.. and some foods “hum…” What works— How do you eat more wisely?

  30. Consider….Balance the calories you eat against those you burn! The”200” Calorie Plan • Eat 100 less calories-- and exercise to use up 100 more • Example: Cut out one slice of bread and add 20 minutes to your daily walk

  31. Consider.. ‘World’s 5 Healthiest Foods’ Olive oil, Soy, Yogurt, Lentils Kimchee 10 ‘Best Bets for Eating Well’ • Apples • Almonds • Blueberries • Broccoli • Red beans • Salmon • Spinach • Sweet potatoes • Vegetable juice • Wheat Germ Source: Health 2006; www.mayoclinic.com

  32. Food as Medicine:Consider all your choices…make them wisely. Be well. New Dietary Guidelines • Focus on fruits • Vary your veggies • Get enough calcium-rich foods • Make half your grains whole • Go lean with protein www.healthierus.gov/dietaryguidelines

  33. Food as Medicine Presentation: Sharon Johnson M.S. Associate Professor Southern Oregon Research and Extension Service Oregon State University 569 Hanley Road Central Point, Oregon 97502 541-776-7371 x210 s.johnson@oregonstate.edu

  34. Informational sources • Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005 • www.5aDay.gov • Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Center on Aging • Weil Cornell Food and Fitness Advisor, Cornell University • Nutrition Concepts and Controversies (Sizer, F. Whitney,E.) 2002 • Tufts University Health and Nutrition Letters 2005.2006 • Living a Healthy Life with Chronic Conditions (Stanford University) 2006