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Hollywood Movie Slide. The West Wing. http://members.aol.com/impervious21/potus.jpg. What Biological theme connects all of these Hollywood movies?. http://www.impawards.com/1975/posters/one_flew_over_the_cuckoos_nest_ver1.jpg.

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hollywood movie slide
Hollywood Movie Slide

The West Wing

http://members.aol.com/impervious21/potus.jpg

What Biological theme connects

all of these Hollywood movies?

http://www.impawards.com/1975/posters/one_flew_over_the_cuckoos_nest_ver1.jpg

http://www.mvps.org/st-software/Movie_Collection/images/7149f.jpg

http://www.scope.dk/images/movie/3442_poster_lorenzosoil.jpg

http://www.popculturecrazy.com/topten/rainman.jpg

http://www.stradanove.net/news/images/cinema/i/iam.sam.jpg

http://www.cinema.com/image_lib/4493_poster_thumb.jpg

http://www.cqc.state.ny.us/Danweb/images/as%20good%20as%20it%20gets.jpg

understanding the brain through disease

Multiple Sclerosis

Understanding the Brain through Disease

Parkinson's Disease

CJD

Tammy Due

Masconomet Regional High School

ADHD

Migraines

Huntington's Disease

lecture outline
Lecture Outline
  • Brain Overview
  • Neural Anatomy
  • Neurological Diseases/Current Research
brain overview
Brain Overview

Parietal Lobe

Frontal Lobe

Occipital Lobe

Temporal Lobe

Cerebellum

Pons

www.cs.princeton.edu/.../ sugcon/models/brain.png

anatomy of the brain
Anatomy of the Brain

Cerebrum

Corpus Callosum

Ventricles

Thalamus

Hypothalamus

Midbrain

Pituitary Gland

Cerebellum

Pons

Medulla

Brain Stem

http://www.ama-assn.org/ama1/pub/upload/images/446/brainside.gif

cerebrum
Cerebrum
  • Makes up the left and right hemispheres of a vertebrate forebrain.
  • Responsible for integrating memory, learning, emotions and other complex functions of the brain.

Return to

Brain slide

hypothalamus
Hypothalamus
  • Part of the forebrain involved with maintaining homeostasis.
  • The hypothalamus is especially important in coordinating the endocrine and nervous systems.
  • Secretes hormones of posterior pituitary which regulate the anterior pituitary.

Return to

Brain slide

pituitary gland
Pituitary Gland
  • Used to be called the “master” gland because so many of its hormones regulate other endocrine functions.
  • Anterior pituitary: secretes hormones directly into the blood stream. The hypothalamus release inhibitory hormones.
  • Anterior pituitary hormones: growth hormone (GH), insulin growth factors, prolactin (PRL), Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leutinizing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), and endorphins
  • Posterior pituitary: the two hormones released by the posterior pituitary are produced by the hypothalamus.
  • Oxytocin and Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Return to

Brain slide

brainstem
Brainstem
  • Medulla or medulla oblongata: contains centers that control breathing, heart & blood vessel activity, swallowing, vomiting & digestion.
  • Pons: have nuclei that regulate the breathing centers in the medulla.
  • Brainstem is responsible for movement.

Return to

Brain slide

cerebellum
Cerebellum
  • Part of the hindbrain
  • Functions in unconscious coordination of movement and balance.

Return to

Brain slide

midbrain
Midbrain
  • Develops into sensory integrating and relay centers that sends sensory information to the cerebrum.

Return to

Brain slide

thalamus
Thalamus
  • One of the integrating centers in the vertebrate forebrain.
  • Neurons in the thalamus relay neural input to specific areas of the cerebral cortex and regulates what information goes to the cerebral cortex.

Return to

Brain slide

ventricles
Ventricles
  • Four spaces in the vertebrate brain that are filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
  • Cerebrospinal fluid conveys nutrients, hormones, & white blood cells across the BBB to different parts of the brain.
  • Fluid also is important in cushioning the brain.

Return to

Brain slide

corpus callosum
Corpus Callosum
  • Thick band of nerve fibers that connects the right & left hemispheres in placental mammals. This connection allows for the hemispheres to process information together.

Return to

Brain slide

lecture outline16
Lecture Outline
  • Brain Overview
  • Neural Anatomy
  • Neurological Diseases/Current Research
these cells control brain function on a cellular level what are they called
These cells control brain function on a cellular level. What are they called?

Image courtesy of Dr. Joshua Sanes, Harvard University, 2005

the neuron comes in many shapes and sizes
The Neuron comes in many shapes and sizes

http://www.mind.ilstu.edu/images/neuron_types.gif

typical neuron
“Typical” Neuron

Soma (nucleus)

Myelin Sheath

http://www.mhhe.com/socscience/intro/ibank/ibank/0002.jpg

slide20

Osm-10

Image by T. Due, Harvard University, 7/15/05

Osm-10 is a chemoreceptor found in C. elegans. This worm contains

a transgene encoding the osm-10 promoter fused to GFP (Harvard Medical School).

action potential i
Action Potential I

1. Resting state: -70mV

2. Neuron receives stimulus, gated ion channels open and sodium(Na+) moves into the cell, this is depolarization. The stronger the signal the more channels that open.

When the threshhold potential is reached (+55 to +50mV) an action impulse is triggered. This is an all or none event.

2

3

1

1

4

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Action_potential_reloaded.jpg

action potential ii
Action Potential II

3. During repolarization the sodium channels close and potassium channels open. K+ moves out of the cell making the cell more negative than its environment.

4. The K+ gates are slow to close which may result in undershooting. This means that the negative voltage inside the cell goes lower than the resting state.

Action Potential Video

Previous Slide

typical neuron23
“Typical” Neuron

Soma (nucleus)

X

Myelin Sheath

Node of Ranvier

http://www.mhhe.com/socscience/intro/ibank/ibank/0002.jpg

the synapse
The Synapse

Mitochondria

Microtubule

Synaptic

Vesicle

Synaptic vesicle

being transferred

Cisternae

Terminal end

Synaptic Cleft

Vesicle at synaptic

cleft

Presynaptic

Membrane

Postsynaptic

Membrane

http://www.staff.city.ac.uk/c.r.legg/index.2.jpg

real synapses
“Real” Synapses

Photo by T. Due, Harvard University, 7/2005

These C. elegan worms contain a transgene encoding unc-49 gene

(GABA receptor) fused to its own promoter and GFP

(Harvard Medical School)

From Dr.Venkatesh N. Murthy’s, Harvard

University, 7/2005

lecture outline26
Lecture Outline
  • Brain Overview
  • Neural Anatomy
  • Neurological Diseases/Current Research
slide27
ADHD
  • Symptoms:

Inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity

  • Causes:
    • Environmental Agents: cigarettes, smoking, lead
      • May affect neuronal connections being formed in developing brain.
    • Brain Injury
      • Evidence has shown that few with ADHD are the result of brain injury.
    • Food Additives & Sugar
      • We once thought that refined sugar and food additives caused ADHD but in studies that restrict a patient’s diet there was little effect on behavior and learning.
causes of adhd continued
Causes of ADHD continued

4. Genetics:

  • 25% of close relatives of someone w/ ADHD also have ADHD. This rate is only 5% in the general public.
  • Twin studies show a strong genetic influence.
brain study results
Brain Study Results
  • Technology used: fMRIs, PET scans, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
  • ADHD children showed 3-4% smaller brain volume in all regions--frontal lobes, temporal gray matter, caudate nucleus and cerebellum.
  • ADHD patients on medication showed no difference from controls in amount of white matter (connections).
  • fMRIs show that there is less glucose used in the frontal lobes of patients with ADHD
brain images adhd
Brain Images: ADHD

Brain scan images produced by fMRI show differences between an adult with Attention deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (right) and an adult free of the disease (left).

Zametkin, et. al., 1990

In men who had ADHD, PET (positron emission tomography) scans showed that they processed a memory task in visual areas in the occipital lobe of the brain, as indicated by the yellow spots in the left image. Non-ADHD men used the temporal and frontal lobes, shown at right (ABCNEWS.com)

treatments
Treatments
  • Medication: shows positive results when appropriate medication and dosage is given
    • Ritalin, Adderall, Concerta: focus has been creating long lasting drugs with fewer side effects. All are stimulants and work in a similar manner to cocaine.
    • Strattera: a non-stimulant medication for ADHD
    • Some side effects of medication: upset stomach, headaches, dizziness, decreased appetite, sleep issues
  • Behavioral Therapy (not best when used alone)
    • Behavioral therapy, Psychotherapy
  • Combination Therapy: medication and behavioral

http://news.dow.com/feature/2004/

12_2_04/images/pills.jpg

huntington s disease hd
Huntington’s Disease (HD)
  • Frequency: 1/30,000 Americans
  • Symptoms of HD
    • Uncontrolled movements
    • Loss of intellectual faculties
    • Emotional disturbances
    • Mood swings
    • Irritability
    • Depression
    • Difficulty driving
    • Concentration on intellectual tasks decreases with age.
biological basis
Biological Basis
  • Autosomal dominant disorder
  • Gene located on chromosome 4
  • Within the gene CAG repeats occur 11-30X in a normal person.
  • A person with 36-125 CAG repeats will tend to develop HD between 30-40 years of age.
  • If someone has >60 repeats they tend to develop HD much earlier, in their 20’s.
the result of cag repeats
The result of CAG repeats
  • The gene that is affected produces the Huntingtin protein in normal cells
  • The protein that is created is a more polar molecule which tends to interact with other brain proteins differently. Ex. HAP 1
slide35

Molecular Basis of Huntington’s Disease

http://apu.sfn.org/images/brainbriefings/huntingtons_illus_large.gif

what areas of the brain are affected by changes in huntingtin protein
What areas of the brain are affected by changes in Huntingtin protein?
  • Neurons are damaged in the basal ganglia, especially the caudate nucleus and globus pallidus.

http://www.hdsa-wi.org/brain.gif

treatment
Treatment
  • Medications are prescribed to decrease the symptoms of HD.
  • Some medications treat fatigue, hyperexcitability, and restlessness.
  • Other medications treat the control emotional and movement problems.
current research on hd
Current Research on HD
  • Silencing of mutant gene, decreases protein production which results in decrease of HD symptoms. Gene was silenced using RNAi’s.
  • Using rodent and primate models, scientists have transplanted fetal brain tissue into brains damaged by HD. The transplanted cells survived.