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Mobile Technology & Cyber Threats P romoting E-Commerce in Ghana. Ruby Saakor Tetteh Ministry of Trade & Industry, Ghana Sixth Annual African Dialogue Consumer Protection Conference September 2014 Lilongwe, Malawi. Definition & Policy Perspective.
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Mobile Technology & Cyber ThreatsPromoting E-Commerce in Ghana Ruby Saakor Tetteh Ministry of Trade & Industry, Ghana Sixth Annual African Dialogue Consumer Protection Conference September 2014 Lilongwe, Malawi
Definition & Policy Perspective • E-commerce is the use of the internet for marketing, identification, payment and delivery of goods and services – Ayo, Adewoyeand Oni 2011 Policy Context • Imperative to establish a legal framework on consumer protection policy in light of electronic commerce • Consumer concerns about shopping online and by other electronic means due to security, confidentiality and redress
Barriers To E-commerce 1. Technical Factors • Poor ICT Infrastructure & costs of telecommunications-related services; • Problems with access such as communications, skills and computing technology; 2. Financial Factors • Lack of investment capital; • Electronic payment systems - online payment using credit cards, store cards, debit cards etc;
Barriers To E-commerce Cont. 3. Logistical Factors • Complex, long winding and non-transparent customs clearance procedures; • Complex and slow business registration procedures. 4. Human Factors • Illiteracy & Non-availability of trained people; • Lack of policy research capacity in the public, private and academic sectors; • Potential threats to the privacy of personal and business data; 5. Policy and Regulatory Factors • A slow realization of the explosive potential of E-Commerce on the part of governments; • Lack of a clear, internationally agreed, regulatory framework and clarity
Ghana Context • Second most internet fraud prone country in Africa and 7th most cyber-crime prone in the world • Hacking of official & private websites • Abduction of teenagers and used to solicit sexual exploitation abroad • About 82% of cyber-crimes occur in Ghana every month and about 1000 crimes a year • International orders on the internet in Ghana and Nigeria have been blocked by businesses in the US and Canada • Cyber attackers target computers of bank customers with high account balances and then roll out a customized version of already established malewareor virus to transfer large sums of money into mule accounts • Banking sector employees are inserting key loggers on machines to pick up passwords in collaboration with external agents
Cyber Threats • Fake anti-virus • Stranded traveller • Fake escrow • Advanced fee fraud – 419 • Online banking fraud – stealing passwords, account numbers and data • Online Relationships – Fraud
E-Commerce Challenges • Unavailability of Internet Services • Lack of Awareness of Consumers • Fraud Online • Inability to Afford Services • Computer Illiteracy by citizens • Lack of knowledge on value of the internet
Status of E-Commerce OnlineTransactions • Mobile Money Bill Payment - cash, water, electricity, DSTV bills etc. • Online Services Websites - tonaton.com, ghanatrade.gov.gh, lamudi.com.gh, etransact.com.gh, etc. • Internet banking transactions - ATM Transactions • Internet Data Services on Cell Phones • SMS Text Services Indicative E-Government/E-Services/E-Business Transactions • E-Governance Services • E-Applications – e-justice, e-immigration, e-procurement, e-payment, e-services, e-education, e-health – GRA, RGD, Births & Deaths, Passports, etc.
Consumer Policy Prescriptions & Other Legislations • Government will ensure that consumers are provided with clear and sufficient information to make an informed choice about how to purchase online and through other electronic means • Government will support and encourage private-sector initiatives that include participation by consumer representatives and consumer protection pressure groups to be more vigilant and more effective to educate the population • Government will ensure stronger collaboration between the public and the private sectors • ICT for Accelerated Development Policy, 2003 & Implementation Strategy, 2005 • Electronic Communications Act 775, 2008 • Electronic Transactions Act 772, 2008 • Data Protection Act 843, 2012
Recommendations • Establish public key infrastructure to authenticate transactions by using digital signatures, encryption & security measures for online transactions • Establish secure and effective payment systems • Effective stakeholder collaboration between policy makers & law enforcement agencies • Create consumer awareness on e-commerce and benefits