Canada... ...Our Neighbor to the North
Location: Absolute & Relative • Geographic Coordinates:60 00 N, 95 00 W • Capital: Ottawa • US/Canada Border: 3,987 miles
Land Forms/Landscape • Total Area: 9,976,140 sq km • Land Area: 9,220,970 sq km • Water Area: 755,170 sq km • Land Use • Arable Land: 5% • Permanent Crops: 0% • Forests & Woodlands: 54% • Other: 38%
Land Forms/Landscape Canada’s Landscape includes several mountain ranges, including the Torngats, Appalachians, and Laurentians in the east; the Rocky, Coastal, and Mackenzie ranges in the west; and Mount St. Elias and the Pelly Mountains in the north. At 19,550 ft, Mt. Logan in the Yukon is Canada’s tallest peak. Boreal Forest, known in Russia as the Taiga is one of the three main forest zones in the world. It is located in northern regions and characterized by its predominance of conifers. There are an estimated two million lakes in Canada, covering approximately 7.6% of its land area. The largest are the Great Lakes, which are shared between the US and Canada. Other large lakes include Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake in the NW Territories and Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba.
Climate • While Canadian Winters are undoubtedly cold, summers are comparably hot. Mid-July afternoons may exceed 25 degrees Celsius (about degrees Fahrenheit) over much of the country’s interior. • Coastal areas: Five to eight degrees cooler because of the effect of sea breezes. • The Rocky Mountains divert cold arctic air from the West Coast and funnels it towards the Prairies. • Pacific Coast has a moderating effect of warm air from the Pacific Ocean. • Along the Atlantic, the effect of the ocean air is less pronounced. • In the Mountain regions, the altitude is the most influential factor on temperature. Precipitation: *The Arctic receives very little rainfall and even less snowfall, making it the driest region in the country. *Canada’s average precipitation is 535 millimeters per year, compared with 690 millimeters per year worldwide. *Snowfall accounts for 36% of Canada’s precipitation, while the rest of the world sees only 5% of its precipitation fall as snow.
Iron Ore Nickel Zinc Copper Gold Lead Molybdenum Potash Silver Fish Timber Wildlife Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Hydropower Natural Resources
Population Canada Population: 31,330,000 -Toronto: 4.69 million -Montreal: 3.42 million -Vancouver: 2.01 million By 1966, the population had grown more than five-fold since 1901, reaching nearly 30 million people. Two Population Booms: -from 1901 to 1911: massive immigration -After World War II (“baby boom”) After the last boom in 1956, when the annual growth rate was 2.8;, growth rates have decreased, fluctuating between 1% and 1.8%, since 1970. In 1901, Ontario was Canada’s most populous province, followed by Quebec.
Timeline of Canadian Triumphs 1534: Jacques Cartier explores the coast of Labrador (this is called the discovery of Canada). 1663: Quebec becomes a royal province. 1774: The Quebec Act, borders of Quebec expanded, religious rights guaranteed. 1818: Anglo-American convention fixes 49th parallel as border between US and Canada 1837: Rush-Bagot Treaty with Canada creates the world’s largest open border. 1857: Ottawa named Canada’s capital by Queen Victoria. 1876: Invention of telephone by Alexander Graham Bell of Bradford, Ontario. 1878: Sir Sanford Fleming, Canadian Railway Surveyor, devises Standard Time. 1925: Women gain suffrage in Newfoundland. 1952: CBC broadcasts Canada’s first part time television show. 1954: First Canadian subway opens in Toronto. 1965: Canada replaces Union Jack with the Maple Leaf as the national flag. 1966: CBC television goes color. 1976: Montreal hosts the 21st Winter Olympic Games. 1984: Marc Garneau becomes the first Canadian in space. 1988: Calgary hosts Winter Olympics. 1992: Roberta Bondar becomes the first Canadian woman in space.
Government Facts Capital City: Ottawa Government Type: Federal Commonwealth Head of State: Queen Elizabeth II Head of Government: Prime Minister Jean Chretien
Economy and Money The one big difference between the US and Canadian top-line numbers is the Canadian Dollar. In recent years it’s been persistently weak against the greenback. However, it stays stronger than most other countries against the US Dollar. With the exchange rate being about 1.36 Canadian Dollars, per US Dollar. GDP: 856.1 billion C Dollars (627.9 billion US Dollars). Chief Economic Products: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, Mining, and Manufacturing. Employment Breakdown: 71% Services, 25% Industry, 3% Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing. Major Exports: Automobiles and parts, mineral fuels, wood products, electrical equipment, aluminum products, and cereal. Major Imports: Automobiles and parts, heavy machinery, communication equipment, and computers. Major Trading Partners: US, Japan, Great Britain, Germany, South Korea, Italy, China.
Agriculture & Industry Agriculture employs about 3% of the Canadian population. Some of their chief crops include: wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables, fish, dairy products, and forest products. The strongest industries in Canada are processed and unprocessed minerals (such as zinc, nickel, and lead), food products, wood and paper products, transportation equipment, chemicals, fish products, petroleum, and natural gas.
Leisure and Sports The population of Canada, 15 years and older rank fishing, golf, and reading as their top three leisure activities.
Leisure and Sports The top three sports in Canada are Golf, Ice Hockey, and Baseball. In 1998, 34% of Canadians participated regularly in one or more sports. Quebec with 38% and Alberta with 37% are the two provinces with the highest participation percentage. Prince Edward Island with 25% and Newfoundland with 27% had the two lowest ratings.
More Culture Ethnic Makeup GENERAL CULTURE: · Essentially Canada is an Anglo nation · Shares traits with the US, Great Britain, and France · View life in individual terms · Egalitarianism · Unhurried lifestyle · Direct but not aggressive · French influence in Quebec Food and Drink:The Canadian diet strongly resembles the American diet, as they consume the same food and drinks that Americans do. One exception: on average, they eat more fish.
Bibliography www.statcan.ca www.worldatlas.com “Canada,” Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 1999.
Objectives for Fishing Activity 5th Grade Social Studies/Geography Standards • 1.2 Describe similarities and differences among the people of the United States, Canada, and Latin America. • 3.1 Describe the absolute and relative location of major landforms, bodies of water, and natural resources in the United States, Canada, and Latin America. • 4.1 Define region and identify various regions within the Western Hemisphere.