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ESS linac. Mats Lindroos, Cristina Oyon and Steve Peggs. ESS facility technical objectives: 5 MW (upgrade 7.5 MW) long pulse source ≤2 ms pulses ≤20 Hz Protons (H+) Low losses High reliability, >95%. Design update: ESSB Preparatory work. ESS-Bilbao WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS.

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ess linac

ESS linac

Mats Lindroos, Cristina Oyon and Steve Peggs


ESS facility technical objectives:

  • 5 MW (upgrade 7.5 MW) long pulse source
  • ≤2 ms pulses
  • ≤20 Hz
  • Protons (H+)
  • Low losses
  • High reliability, >95%

Design update: ESSB Preparatory work


The workshop brought together more than 160 experts from across the world, leaders in the fields of high power proton accelerators, beam dynamics and targets, in a format and infrastructure that promoted open discussion,

while maintaining the focus of documenting clear recommendations for future collaborative R&D efforts.

reference group meetings http indico hep lu se categorydisplay py categid 44
Reference group meetings
  • RG1: CERN, 6 February 2009
    • Present: 7 people (ESS, CERN, BNL, CEA)
    • Theme: Recent progress in SCRF technology and what implications this has on the ESS (2003) linac design
    • Main outcome: Tentative parameter list for ESSS linac proposal
  • RG2: Lund, 25 February 2009
    • Present: 9 people (ESS, CERN, BNL, CEA, TSL, MSL, FNAL)
    • Theme: Develop the tentative ESSS linac design from RG1
    • Main outcome: PAC09 contribution
  • RG3: CERN, 5 June 2009
    • Present: 20 people
    • Theme: What can we learn from SNS and the SPL study?
    • Main outcome: Demonstrated the necessity to prototype and perform (cold) acceptance tests of all structures. Decision to work on strong links to both SNS and CERN-SPL
  • RG4: Århus, 9 October 2009
    • Present: 30 People
    • Theme: Transition (energy) from NC to SC structures
  • RG5: Bilbao, 23 November 2009
    • Present: 35 People
    • Theme: Beam losses and operational simulations
design update esss preparatory work
Design update: ESSS Preparatory work
  • Work with expert group (the ESSS linac reference group)

352.2 MHz

704.4 MHz

many cavities
Many cavities!
  • Approx. 200 cavities, RF distribution is a major part of budget!
  • Minor default => Major problem, big risk
  • Can we keep RF source and distribution budget under or at level with the 2003 design value?
ess guidelines adopted by ess stc
ESS Guidelines (adopted by ESS STC)
  • Starting point is the 2008 ESFRI Roadmap specification
  • Performance parameters 
    • Neutron production 30 times SNS today
    • Peak neutron flux 30 times ILL´s average flux
    • Time-averaged flux equal to ILL
  •  Electrical power supply 32 MW to 38 MW
  • Accelerator key parameters 
    • A proton linac
    • Proton energy range: 1 to 2.5 GeV
    • Pulse frequency range: 10 to 20 Hz
    • Pulse length range: 0.8 to 2 msec
    • Beam power nominal: 5 MW
    • Beam on target: > 95 % reliability
    • Beam loss: ~ 1 W/m
  • Target station key parameters
    • A single target station
    • Cold and cold-thermal moderators
    • A liquid metal target: mercury or lead-alloys, Solid rotating target as fall-back
  • 22 beam ports (11 North, 11 South)
  • or 11 beam ports South and 22 neutron guides North.
base line for ess v0
Base line for ESS – v0

Technical Design Report with cost to completion for the end of 2012:

  • Proton linac: 5 MW, protons, 1.0-2 ms pulse, 20 Hz at 2.5 GeV
  • Aim for 1.0 ms pulse length
    • Priority: i) power couplers (>1.2 MW?), ii) additional cryomodules and/or iii) higher energy
  • Final decision on pulse length to be taken for the TDR
  • Upgradable for higher power (repetition rate or pulse current) and for H-

10-50 MeV

  • Higher energy:
  • Size of moderator
  • Distribution and direction of hadronic cascade
examples of risks to be addressed
Examples of risks to be addressed
  • High losses in the linac
    • Action: Comprehensive studies of beam dynamics (simulations and theory)
  • Poor reproducibility in cavity performance
    • Action: Quality control during manufacturing and prototyping of a sufficient large number of cavities
  • Limits in cavity performance due to field emission
    • Action: Prototyping and comprehensive tests of complete cryomodule
  • Lower power limit than expected of power couplers
    • Action: Prototyping, sufficient conditioning facilities and contingency in linac design
writing group
Writing Group
  • Project plan for the linac design update and prototyping
    • Design Report for the end of 2012
    • Prototyping will run longer
  • Responsibilities within WG
    • S.Peggs – Beam physics
    • C.Oyon – project planning
    • M. Lindroos – coordination
    • R. Duperrier – System
  • WG schedule and milestones
      • Status report 3 February STC
      • Presentation of project plan 23 April STC
      • Review and audit of Project plan before STC in October
collaboration model for linac design
Collaboration model for linac design!
  • Work Package (work areas)
  • 1. Management Coordination (ESS)
  • 2. Accelerator Physics (ESS)
  • 3. Infrastructure Services (Tekniker, Es)
  • 4. SCRF Spoke cavities (Orsay, Fr)
  • 5. SCRF Elliptical cavities (CEA, Fr)
  • 6. Front End and NC linac (INFN, It, TBC)
  • 7. Beam transport, NC magnets and Power Supplies (ÅU, Dk)
  • 8. RF Systems (UU, Se)
collaboration model required
Collaboration model: Required
  • A collaboration to share interesting R&D, assure an all European effort and kick start the ESS work
  • A strong Coordination Team in Lund to take the intellectual ownership of the design, to follow the work, to assure good project cost control, and to be responsible for project integration
  • A collaboration board to assure good coordination and to address poor performance
  • Use of common standards, web based documentation, regular reporting and appropriate costing tools
  • Regular reviews of critical path deliverables and even milestones of large work packages (if at a single institute)

Synergies for linac



  • Spoke resonators
  • Two prototypes @ 352 MHz (b 0.15 and b 0.35) fabricated and tested.
  • Half-wave resonators
  • Two prototypes @ 352 MHz (b 0.17 and b 0.31) fabricated and tested


  • The ESS linac project plan
    • In progress…
    • But at a stage when new partners can join!
  • Looking forward to work together with new and old friends in Portugal