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Social Problems • A condition that can be empirically observed • A process by which society comes to define the problem
Types of Social Problems • Acts and conditions that violate the norms and values present in society • Societal-induced conditions that cause psychic and material suffering for any segment of the population
What is a Social Problem (cont.)? • A condition (e.g., poverty) • A pattern of behaviour (e.g., violence) that people believe warrants public concern and collective action to bring about change • Social problems are conditions that: • affect the quality of life of a large number of people • affect cherished values
What is a Social Problem (cont.)? Social problems can also be discrepancies between ideals and achievement For example, between rights guaranteed by the Charter and discrimination: actions or practices of dominant group members that have harmful effects on members of subordinate groups The discrimination could be acted out in the form of violence, a hate crime, an act of violence motivated by prejudice against people on the basis of racialized identity, religion, gender, or sexual orientation.
The Index of Social Health • Measures major social problems including: • Poverty and Economic Inequality • Illiteracy • Unemployment • Child Labour • Dowry • Levels of child abuse • Domestic Violence • Crime and Violence • Child Marriage • Drugs and Alcohol Abuse • Caste discrimination • Sexism and Gender Inequality • Divorce • Health and Health Care reach • War and Terrorism • Homelessness • Female Feticide
DEFINITION Social pathological behaviour is related to social health; it refers to relational disorders; not respecting social norms and communication interfere with moral, social, civil, political and economic issues.
FORMS OF SOCIAL PATHOLOGY • telling lies • cheating • thefts • inappropriate agression • Bullying, public hooting-nuisance • shirking school, • use and dependence on tobacco, alcohol, drugs, internet, lottery • commercial sexual behaviour • deliquent behaviour, street children
SOCIETAL RISK FACTORS • Rapid social and political changes • Changes of the family structure and function • Absence of positive role models in everyday situations • Virtual reality (films, games with aggressive behaviour as a model)
CULTURAL PREDISPOSITION • Values and norms of the society • Role of media • Social network - values of peers
INDIVIDUAL PREDISPOSITION • Genetic backgrounds (alcohol, aggressive behaviour) • Biological vulnerability (pregnancy, birth) • Deviations in development of the child
FAMILY DISPOSITION • Upbringing - deficit or absence of meeting basic needs, developing psychosocial tasks • violence (physical, sexual, mental, neglect, child as a victim of violence between parents)
PREDISPOSING LIFE EVENTS • Abandonment (emotional deprivation) • Divorce of parents, conflicts in the care after divorce, dysfunctional family • Child abuse or neglect • Chronic illness in the child • Longterm illness, death in the family
Violence in teenagers * significant increase in prevalence * rising brutality * dropping age of initiation of violent carrier * violence as entertainment * violence related to sports * gangs of radical groups. These forms of violence in the society are most apparent – broadly presented by media.
Crime and deliquence • Dropping age of deliquents • Increasing brutality Risk factors: • Biological (male gender, age, early impairment of CNS) • Mental (temperament, personality disorder, vulnerability to stress) • Social (incomplete, dysfunctional family,)
WARNING SIGNS • Extreme resistance • Provocative behaviour • Calling for attention • Problems with peers • Attention disorders • Impulsiveness • Interference with privacy of others • Laziness • Fooling, clowning
Prevention • Family educatiom in the school • Family support (planned parenting, antenatal education) • Services (health, social, psychological) offered to the family and the child • System of the care for children at risk (national policy – intersectoral collaboration) • Information to public (public campaigns) • Education of health profs, teachers, parents • System of preventive examinations– early detection and intervention
RESILIENCE • Creativity • Self-control • Self-confidence • Energy, excitement • Ability to collaborate, appologize, forgive • Ability to cope with problems • Hobbies, leisure time activities
Definition Social security is defined as security that society furnishes through appropriate organization, against certain risks to which its members are exposed. The risks which social security covers in most countries are sicknes, invalidity, maternity, old age and death. It also includes social insurance and social assistance.
WHY SOCIAL SECURITY? Absence of a meaningful social security arrangement is not merely a problem for individual, it has wider ramifications in the economy and the society. From an economic point of view, it debilitate citizen’s ability to contribute meaningfully and efficiently. Low earning power, coupled with vulnerabilities, lead to poverty that also reduces aggregate demand. Socially, it leads to disaffection and dissatisfaction, especially when a small segment of the society is well endowed and seen as prospering.
Statutory Social Security System Government provides social security to the workers. • Employees’ State Insurance (ESI) Act 1948 • Employees’ Provident Fund (EPF) Act 1952 • Workers’ Compensation Act 1923 • Maternity Benefit Act 1961 • Payment of Gratuity Act 1972
Three principal mechanisms • Legislation and statutory schemes have extended various social security benefits primarily to workers from the organised sector • Social assistance is extended through targeted programmes for the vulnerable and disadvantaged • Self-financing mechanisms have been established by different agencies and groups
SOME DIMENSIONS OF SOCIAL SECURITY Employment Security Health Security Maternity Security Old Age Security Pension Schemes Gratuity Provident Fund
Social Security Schemes for Industrial workers/Civil servants • Workmen’s compensation • Central Maternity Benefit • Employees State Insurance Scheme • Family Pension Schemes, • Provident Fund/Gratuity. • Central Health Service Schemes
Social security schemes for General Population • Life insurance • Insurance against accident, theft, disaster etc. • Public Provident Fund • RastriyaSwastyaVimaYojna for people living below poverty line • Other community health insurance • National Rural Guarantee Employment Schemes
Social Welfare Schemes Disadvantaged and marginalized sections of the society like Scheduled Castes Other Backward Classes Persons with Disabilities Senior Citizens and Victims of Substance Abuse Widows, BPL For Education, Nutrition, House, employment, Health etc.