Fire Streams SFFMA Training Objectives: 6-01.01 – 6-01.09 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Fire Streams SFFMA Training Objectives: 6-01.01 – 6-01.09
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Fire Streams SFFMA Training Objectives: 6-01.01 – 6-01.09

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  1. Fire StreamsSFFMA Training Objectives:6-01.01 – 6-01.09

  2. DISCUSSION QUESTION What is a fire stream? • Stream of water or other water-based extinguishing agent after it leaves the fire hose and nozzle until it reaches the desired point. Firefighter I

  3. Identifying Fire Streams • By size and type • Size = Volume of flowing per minute • Type = specific pattern/shape of water • Rate of discharge measured in gallons per minute (gpm) or liters per minute (L/min) Firefighter I

  4. Fire Stream Classifications • Low-volume stream • Discharge less the 40gpm. • Typically supplied by ¾’’, 1’’, 1 1/2’’ • Crosby: Booster Trucks & Engine forestry lines • Handlinestream • Discharges 40gmp – 350 gpm • Supplied by 1 ¾’’ – 3’’ • Crosby: Main cross lays on Engine & Tankers • Master stream • Discharges more than 350 gpm • Supplied by 2.5’’ and greater • Crosby: Blitzfire, Deck Guns, and Tower Firefighter I

  5. Fire Stream Considerations • Volume discharged determined by design of nozzle, pressure at nozzle • To be effective, stream must deliver volume of water sufficient to absorb heat faster than it is being generated (Continued) Firefighter I

  6. Fire Stream Considerations • Type of fire stream indicates specific pattern/shape of water stream • Requirements of effective streams • Requirements of all streams Firefighter I

  7. Solid Stream • Produced from fixed orifice, solid-bore nozzle • Has ability to reach areas others might not; reach affected by several factors • Design capabilities (Continued) Firefighter I

  8. Advantages of Solid Streams • May maintain better interior visibility than others • May have greater reach than others • Operate at reduced nozzle pressures per gallon (liter) than others • May be easier to maneuver (Continued) Firefighter I

  9. Advantages of Solid Streams • Have greater penetration power • Less likely to disturb normal thermal layering of heat, gases during interior structural attacks • Less prone to clogging with debris (Continued) Firefighter I

  10. Disadvantages of Solid Streams • Do not allow for different stream pattern selections • Provide less heat absorption per gallon (liter) delivered than others • Hoselines more easily kinked at corners, obstructions Firefighter I

  11. Fog Stream • Fine spray composed of tiny water droplets • Design of most fog nozzles permits adjustment of tip to produce different stream patterns (Continued) Firefighter I

  12. Fog Stream • Water droplets formed to expose maximum water surface for heat absorption • Desired performance of fog stream nozzles judged by amount of heat that fog stream absorbs and rate by which the water is converted into steam/vapor (Continued) Firefighter I

  13. Fog Stream • Nozzles permit settings of straight stream, narrow-angle fog, and wide-angle fog • Nozzles should be operated at designed nozzle pressure (Continued) Firefighter I

  14. Fog Stream • Shorter reach makes fog streams less useful for outside, defensive fire fighting operations • Well suited for fighting interior fires Firefighter I

  15. Fog Stream: Nozzle Pressure • Combination nozzles designed to operate at different pressures • Designated operating pressure for most combination nozzles is 100 psi (700 kPa) (Continued) Firefighter I

  16. Advantages of Fog Streams • Discharge pattern can be adjusted for situation • Can aid ventilation • Reduce heat by exposing maximum water surface for heat absorption • Wide fog pattern provides protection to firefighters Firefighter I

  17. Ball Valve • Most common • Provides effective control during nozzle operation with minimum effort (Continued) Firefighter I

  18. Fire Stream Triangle

  19. Nozzle Flow and Reaction of 100psi Fog Nozzle

  20. Water Hammer (Continued) Firefighter I

  21. Water Hammer • When flow of water through fire hose or pipe is suddenly stopped, shock wave produced when moving water reaches end of hose and bounces back • Pressure surge referred to as water hammer (Continued) Firefighter I

  22. Water Hammer • Sudden change in direction creates excessive pressures that can cause damage to water mains, plumbing, fire hose, hydrants, fire pumps • Can often be heard as distinct clank • To prevent when water flowing, close components slowly Firefighter I

  23. Friction Loss • That part of total pressure lost while forcing water through pipes, fittings, fire hose, and adapters

  24. CROSBY FIRE AND RESCUEFRICTION LOSS CARD • 1 ¾’’ LINE @ 125 GPM = 10.5 PSI PER 50’ • 1 ¾’’ LINE @ 150 GPM = 13 PSI PER 50’ • 1 ¾’’ LINE @ 200 GPM = 22.5 PSI PER 50’ • 2 ½’’ LINE @ 250 GPM = 15 PSI PER 50’ • 2 ½’’ LINE @ 350 GPM = 28 PSI PER 50’ • 2 ½’’ LINE @ 500 GPM = 55 PSI PER 50’ • 5’’ LINE @ 400 GPM = .5 PSI PER 50’ • 5’’ LINE @ 500 GPM = 1 PSI PER 50’ • STANDARD CROSSLAY = 142 PSI

  25. Elevation Loss/Gain • Pressure loss — When nozzle is above fire pump • Pressure gain — When nozzle is below pump Courtesy of District Chief Chris E. Mickal, NOFD Photo Unit. Firefighter I

  26. CROSBY FIRE AND RESCUEFRICTION LOSS CARD • +/- 5 PSI PER FLOOR ELEVATION (-1 FLOOR) • +/- .5 PSI PER FOOT OF ELEVATION • IF +350 GPM, 10 PSI PER APPLIANCE FOR FL • 25 PSI FL PER MASTER @ RATED CAPACITY • 80 – 120 PSI FOR CAFS USAGE • FOG = 100 PSI @ NOZZLE • MASTER (SOLID) = 80 PSI @ NOZZLE • HANDLINE (SOLID) = 50 PSI @ NOZZLE • OPEN TANK TO PUMP AND TANK FILL TO • CIRCULATE PUMP WATER!

  27. Practical Exercise

  28. Hand line & Low Volume Line 30min Evolution Cones at multiple distances, with ball that must be knocked off. Cones at multiple distances, with ball that must be knocked off. Stream Handler 1/3 of class Forestry Line 3xFire Fighters will operate between the two separate lines. Knocking one ball off on hand line and moving to low volume line and so on. Observers 1/3 of class Hand Line Pump Operators 1/3 of class

  29. Master Stream 30min Evolution Stream Handler 1/3 of class Observers 1/3 of class Pump Operators 1/3 of class Fire Fighters will be timed on the ability to set-up “blitzfire” with 2.5’’ line and knock down to cones.