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Battle for the Biosphere Year 11 revision. Key terms. Key terms. Key terms. Key facts: Ecosystems. Key facts : The biosphere life-support system . The biosphere’s interaction with other parts of the physical world. Key facts: Latitude.

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Battle for the Biosphere Year 11 revision

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    1. Battle for the BiosphereYear 11 revision

    2. Key terms
    3. Key terms
    4. Key terms
    5. Key facts: Ecosystems
    6. Key facts: The biosphere life-support system The biosphere’s interaction with other parts of the physical world.
    7. Key facts: Latitude Latitude: The position of a place north or south of the equator, expressed in degrees. The sun’s rays are more spread out at the poles, meaning the temperature is lower The sun’s rays are more concentrated at the equator, meaning the temperature is higher
    8. Biomes Learn biome locations! The largest ecosystems in the world are called biomes.
    9. Biome distribution The two main factors that control what ecosystems are like and where they can be found are: latitude (distance from the equator) and altitude (height above sea level) Latitude and altitude also control precipitation (rain) and temperature. Therefore ecosystems change depending on the altitude and latitude they are found at. e.g. the type of ecosystem found at the top of a mountain is often very different one found at the bottom.
    10. Biome distribution example:Tropical rainforest Between 10o north and south of the equator Here the sun’s rays are concentrated, heating moist air and causing it to rise. Heavy rainfall is the result – perfect conditions for evergreen rainforest. The largest continuous area of tropical rainforest is in South America E.g. Brazil, Indonesia
    11. Biome distribution example: Hot deserts Deserts cover about one fifth of the Earth's land surface. Most Hot and Dry Deserts are near the Tropic of Cancer or the Tropic of Capricorn. Hot and Dry Deserts temperature ranges from 20 to 25° C. The extreme maximum temperature for Hot Desert ranges from 43.5 to 49° C. Hot and Dry Deserts usually have very little rainfall and/or concentrated rainfall in short periods between long rainless periods. This averages out to under 15 cm a year. Hot and Dry Deserts are warm throughout the autumn and spring seasons, and very hot during the summer. Winters usually have very little if any rainfall.
    12. The biosphere and the hydrological (water) cycle:
    13. The biosphere and the hydrological cycle:
    14. The biosphere and the hydrological cycle: The biosphere (e.g. trees and the soil) supports the hydrological cycle in many ways: Trees can also help reduce hazards such as flooding because they absorb lots of water and prevent it from running off into rivers. The leaves on trees can intercept rainwater and therefore protect the soil from being eroded (washed away) The soil also acts as a store for water. Trees take up water from the soil through their roots and this water eventually ends up back in the atmosphere by evapotranspiration.
    15. The carbon cycle How the biosphere regulates carbon: The Carbon Cycle
    16. The nutrient cycle Biomass Litter Soil nutrients The total mass of living organisms, mainly plant tissue The amount of organic matter, including humus and leaf litter, in the soil. Soil absorbs nutrients from the decaying litter.
    17. The nutrient cycle
    18. Biomes – Goods and Services Goods – products and items sourced from the biome for survival or commercial use. Services – measures the biome takes to serve the planet e.g. regulating the composition of the atmosphere, maintaining the health of the soil.
    19. Biomes – Goods
    20. Biosphere goods
    21. Biosphere services
    22. Biomes – Goods and Services
    23. Biomes – Goods and Services Key: Goods Services
    24. The Destruction of the Amazon
    25. Impact of people on the rainforest
    26. Impact of people on the rainforest
    27. Climate Change, Pollution & the Biosphere
    28. Polluting the biosphere: Climate change is caused by greenhouse gases such as Carbon Dioxide and Methane. Direct threats to biomes can be managed and reduced by countries, but indirect threats are much harder to manage. The main indirect threat is global warming. Global warming is occurring too rapidly for many species to adapt to the changing climate. A rise of 3o could happen by 2060. Some scientists think this could lead to some species extinction...already: Plants are flowering earlier Bird migration patterns are changing The Arctic tundra is warming rapidly Vegetation zones are shifting towards the poles by 6km every 10 years
    29. Managing our biosphere
    30. Methods of biosphere management
    31. What is sustainable development? Learn! Learn! “Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations.” Learn! Learn!
    32. Sustainable management of our biosphere: Social = Economic = Environmental =
    33. Sustainable management: Sustainability Improved infrastructure means more tourists are attracted, that spend money in local businesses. (soc/econ) Money earned ensures people have adequate housing, electricity & water (env/soc/econ/sus) Economic Improved infrastructure attracts more investment & business (soc/econ) Locals have jobs as forest rangers (env/soc/econ/sus) Locals have jobs as wildlife Spotters (env/soc/econ/sus) Money earned pays for children to go to school (soc/econ) Social Environmental Rich bio-diversity (env) Locals are encouraged to look after forest and protect animals as these attract touristsand provide an income (env/soc/econ/sus) Forest growing freely (env) Employment provides people with skills, pride & helps reduce crime (soc/econ) Money earned pays for improved infrastructure such as roads (econ) Hunting is kept to a minimum and endangered species are protected (env/soc/econ/sus) Money earned pays for doctors & health programmes (soc/econ) Only certain trees are allowed to be felled and forest is allowed to re-generate (env)
    34. Case study: sustainable management
    35. Case study: Talamanca, Costa Rica Small scale forestry with a long-term view. To ensure the forest was farmed sustainably, they: Do not cut trees down – they only collect timber from fallen trees. They use buffalo to remove the wood, so there is no need to build roads. Timber has been used to build a tourist lodge, so avoid depending on only one resource (now having farming, timber, and tourism) The lodge is a way of protecting the forest as here they can educate the tourists about it. Plant crops in the spaces between trees Plant a variety of crops in amongst the others, copying the rainforest’s natural growth patterns. Local communities sceptical at first, but now on board
    36. Videos: World Biomes: An Introduction to Climate Photosynthesis Rainforest processes - Costa Rica The carbon cycle 1 The carbon cycle 2 Climate Change Impacts on Biodiversity Rainforest sustainability - Costa Rica 1 Rainforest sustainability – Costa Rica 2 Costa Rica - TALAMANCA INITIATIVE Links:
    37. Past GCSE questions: A Describe the distribution of tropical rainforests (2 marks) Outline how altitude affects biome location (2 marks) Explain how temperature and precipitation (climate) affect the distribution of global biomes. (4 marks) “The destruction of some forests has made us more aware of the benefits they can provide.” Explain the value of a biome you have studied. (4 marks) Using examples, describe how the biosphere provides people with a range of goods and services. (4 marks) Describe two ways in which the biosphere acts as a life support system (4 marks)
    38. Past GCSE questions: B Explain the role of human activity in the destruction of tropical rainforest (6 marks) Suggest two reasons why many rainforest areas are being cut down (deforestation). (2 marks) Describe two effects of deforestation on the environment. (4 marks) Explain how climate change can lead to degradation of the biosphere (4 marks) Describe two ways humans can harm (damage) the biosphere (4 marks)
    39. Past GCSE questions: C Describe one way in which people are trying to conserve the biosphere. (2 marks) Describe one way of conserving threatened environments. (2 marks) Describe two ways of conserving (protecting) threatened environments. (4 marks) Describe one management measure that can be used to conserve the biosphere. (2 marks) Using examples explain how management measures can help to conserve the biosphere (6 marks)
    40. Good luck!