Year 11 revision. Medicine!!!!!!. The Egyptians: 3500BC-1550BC. Wealthy Nation Farming was very important Traded with many different countries The Nile was of great significance for farming (flooded) Led to the belief in Channels “May your Channels be sound!”. Attitudes and beliefs.
Brain did not control speech
Arteries and veins carried blood
Developed bandaging techniques used for centuries
Believed in only 1 god and used the term “the creator" therefore his ideas were respected for 1000s of years
Wrote over 100 books
He gave lectures to train people
Deprived of human bodies he used animals instead and therefore made many anatomical mistakes: about the Human brain and the heart
For years after many people were reluctant to question Galen and therefore in the long term it could be argued that he was a hindrance to the development of medicineWhat did he know…
Towns broke up
Many medical books were destroyed
A belief in magic and faith became popular again
The church became very important again
The Monasteries kept ideas about medicine and hygiene alive
St Benedict advocated that the cure of the sick should be the most important job of a monk
Most of the books were written in Latin and only the monks were educated in thisWhere did it all go wrong?
The Clergy generally read Latin and therefore could interpret the works of Galen
Part of all religious duty was to look after the sick
Universities founded after 1200 were controlled by the church
The church believed truth would be found by studying old ideas from the bible and Galen
Christ was seen as a carer of the sick: lepers
From 1300 some schools enable pupils to dissect, which increased the knowledge of anatomy
Greek ideas fitted well into the Christian beliefs i.e. nature causes illness, when god was seen as the main creator
Although the church taught that it was good to look after the sick they believed this could be achieved in prayer, belief and saints
People still relied on charms and spells to cure them
By studying past ideas they were not encouraged to develop new ones!
Divine right of Kings gave power of healing
Evil spirits caused disease (S5)
Most churches disallowed dissectionWas the Christian Church a help or a hindrance?
Proved Galen’s theory of blood being replaced by the lungs wrong
Proved the heart acted as a pump
Wrote “An anatomical account of the motion of the heart and blood in animals”
The idea that organisms are the result of decay.
Chadwick’s report on “The sanitary conditions of the labouring population of Great Britain 1842” Highlighted that ill health was caused by poor living conditions
Chadwick argued looking after the poor would actually decrease money spent (an able workforce)
Epidemics: 1848 and 1865
Disease hitting the rich (a royal victim Prince Albert
Statistic collated by William Farr suggested a link between poverty and deaths
Dr J Snow had concluded that poor water supplies were not helping reduce the spread of Cholera
The “Clean party” were campaigning for reforms
Some Victorian Businessmen were concerned about the welfare of their workforce and were trying to alleviate problems (i.e. Cadbury’s and Rowntree
Local ratepayers were trying to reduce the amount currently spent on the poor
Local businessmen would not appreciate “being told” by the government that they HAD to help
£11 million was spent on public health in 1848-1872 it was not cheap!
Those in a position to help did not want to be bullied into reforms
It would appear it was a problem for the poor
Lassiez Faire had been policy for years and seemed to be working
Those people voting were generally those liable to pay for improvements
Germs had still not been discovered!
“The Dirty” party opposed reformsWhy would some people oppose reform?