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Year 11 revision

Year 11 revision

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Year 11 revision

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  1. Year 11 revision Medicine!!!!!!

  2. The Egyptians: 3500BC-1550BC • Wealthy Nation • Farming was very important • Traded with many different countries • The Nile was of great significance for farming (flooded) • Led to the belief in Channels • “May your Channels be sound!”

  3. Attitudes and beliefs • Highly superstitious: use of charms and amulets to treat illness • Dissection forbidden but embalming was used for important people • This led to a limited knowledge of Anatomy

  4. Individuals • There doesn’t seem to be any!!!

  5. Science and Technology • Specialist craftsmen developed the formation of bronze instruments used for minor surgical procedures

  6. War • This was not a significant factor in the Egyptian culture

  7. Governments • The Pharaoh had his own physician highlighting the importance of medicine

  8. Communication • Traded with China, India, Africa • This trade involved many different herbs and plants • The development of papyrus (paper reeds) helped people to pass on medicinal knowledge accurately

  9. The Greeks 1500 BC-500BC

  10. So what were they like? • Skilled fighters • Fishermen and farmers • High level of trade with other cultures • Generally rich and therefore had the luxury of education • “Thinkers” traditionally remembered for having enquiring minds and wanting to work things out even if this didn’t lead to practical solutions

  11. Attitudes and Beliefs • Many, many gods! • Goddess of Healing: Asclepius • Asclepions • BUT not everyone convinced by power of the gods and have many Greek thinkers! • HIPPOCRATES!!!!!!!! • The Four Humours

  12. Hippocrates • Born 460BC in Kos • Advocated that all diseases should be treated naturally • Observation • Advice • Treatment • Surgery • Oath • Collection

  13. But most importantly….

  14. Science and Technology • Iron Steel developed (but few operations done and mainly outside the body)

  15. War • Expansion of the Greek Empire led to the spread of medical knowledge

  16. Governments • The Empire was very rich and this led to a great number of people being educated

  17. Communication • Traded with other Ancient Civilisations

  18. The Romans 300BC-450AD

  19. So what are they like.. • Very big • Large Cities highly populated • Well Organised • Practical • Very wealthy

  20. Attitudes and Beliefs • Roman Gods: Salus (goddess of healing) • The gods were a FIRST resort • Herbs and natural remedies passed down through generations • Practical people • Exercise, Diet, Herbs

  21. Individuals • Discorides AD64 • Army doctor who wrote a book full of 600 herbal remedies (20% of which were actually practical today) • GALEN

  22. “Watch that pig squeal” • Born in Greece (Ad129) • Moved to Egypt and then Rome • Was a doctor for Gladiators (lots of experience studying wounds and the body) • Advocated Observation • Was no copycat developed the theory of humours to “Opposites”

  23. GOOD Brain did not control speech Arteries and veins carried blood Advocated dissection Developed bandaging techniques used for centuries Believed in only 1 god and used the term “the creator" therefore his ideas were respected for 1000s of years Wrote over 100 books He gave lectures to train people Bad Deprived of human bodies he used animals instead and therefore made many anatomical mistakes: about the Human brain and the heart For years after many people were reluctant to question Galen and therefore in the long term it could be argued that he was a hindrance to the development of medicine What did he know…

  24. Science and technology • Observation was strongly recommended by key people

  25. War • Very, Very important • The army was essential to the Empire • Led to improved public health • Spread of ideas and resources • Army hospitals/surgeons etc

  26. Governments • A strong centralised government • Which could implement many schemes which helped medicine advance

  27. What have the Romans done for us…

  28. Communication • Knowledge spread around the large Empire • Galen's Books (still used 1500 years later!)

  29. The Dark Ages/Arab World Ad 400-1100

  30. Attacks by tribes led to the fall of the Roman Empire Towns broke up Many medical books were destroyed A belief in magic and faith became popular again The church became very important again The Monasteries kept ideas about medicine and hygiene alive St Benedict advocated that the cure of the sick should be the most important job of a monk Most of the books were written in Latin and only the monks were educated in this Where did it all go wrong?

  31. The Arab Empire: Middle East/North Africa

  32. The Middle Ages 1100AD-1500

  33. Attitudes and Beliefs • Great number of people still believed in superstitions: Black Death • Zodiac Man • Whatever people thought caused diseases most people used herbal remedies • The Christian Church was very important! But often hindered medical Progress! • Works of Galen still studied

  34. Superstition

  35. Black Death • Struck in 1348 • Numerous ideas about what caused it: Bad air, dirt, planets, god, evil, Jews • Led to ridiculous cures: Amulets, clean ups, killing Jews, mass prayer etc • 40% people died

  36. The Christian church was the only strong organisation in a time of chaos The Clergy generally read Latin and therefore could interpret the works of Galen Part of all religious duty was to look after the sick Universities founded after 1200 were controlled by the church The church believed truth would be found by studying old ideas from the bible and Galen Christ was seen as a carer of the sick: lepers From 1300 some schools enable pupils to dissect, which increased the knowledge of anatomy Greek ideas fitted well into the Christian beliefs i.e. nature causes illness, when god was seen as the main creator Although the church taught that it was good to look after the sick they believed this could be achieved in prayer, belief and saints People still relied on charms and spells to cure them By studying past ideas they were not encouraged to develop new ones! Divine right of Kings gave power of healing Evil spirits caused disease (S5) Most churches disallowed dissection Was the Christian Church a help or a hindrance?

  37. Individuals • Galen • Theory of Four Humours

  38. Science and Technology • Little knowledge of cause of disease led to few scientific methods being adopted • No idea of cause of disease due to lack of technology • Observation of dissection

  39. War • Kingdoms more interested in building up an army and having wars rather than improving health of nations • Wars lead to poor countries • But on plus side helped to increase surgical knowledge through necessity

  40. Governments • No formal structure • Public health measures disregarded during dark ages Slight improvements but impractical • Kings more concerned with wars/money and law and order

  41. Communication • Galen’s books • Written in Latin so only church members understood? • War disrupted communication

  42. Renaissance Period 1500-1750

  43. Attitudes and Beliefs • This was a time of change for peoples attitudes and beliefs • Experiments: people willing to challenge old ideas • Wealth: increased led to better education • A rebirth in thinking • Despite this many people still believed superstitious beliefs (Great Plague)

  44. Individuals

  45. William Harvey Born 1578 Proved Galen’s theory of blood being replaced by the lungs wrong Proved the heart acted as a pump Wrote “An anatomical account of the motion of the heart and blood in animals”

  46. Science and Technology • Improvements in machinery • Development of microscopes (Dutch watchmaker 1600)

  47. War • Numerous wars in the 16th and 17th century • Pro: surgical experiments • Cons: Governments more interested in supplying wars rather than medical improvements

  48. Governments • The King’s Evil • The monarch was considered to be “gods deputy” and could therefore cure illness • Town councils took over hospitals (charity councils) • St Bartholomew's Hospital (London)

  49. Industrial revolution 1750-1900 AD

  50. Development of technology Urbanisation Entrepreneurs Overcrowding Development of transport Change in government attitudes Machines: factories Slum housing Exploitation of the poor Poor living/working conditions Communication of knowledge Decrease in lassiez faire approach A changing Britain…