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The Dark Universe Dark Matter Matters!. Exploring the Dark Universe June 28-29, 2007 Indiana University. DARK MATTER. The universe is NOT what it seems…. DARK MATTER. “Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence.” (Carl Sagan)

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The Dark Universe Dark Matter Matters!

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    1. The Dark UniverseDark Matter Matters! Exploring the Dark Universe June 28-29, 2007 Indiana University

    2. DARK MATTER The universe is NOT what it seems…

    3. DARK MATTER • “Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence.” (Carl Sagan) • “Extraordinary claims require extraordinary proof.” (Marcello Truzzi) • “The weight of evidence for an extraordinary claim must be proportioned to its strangeness” (Laplace) • “A wise man, therefore, proportions his belief to the evidence” (David Hume)

    4. Evidence for Dark Matter Rotation of galaxies Velocities of stars in galaxies Gravitational lensing Velocities of galaxies in clusters

    5. Why is DARK MATTER important? Without dark matter, the Universe would not exist as we know it The formation of galaxies and the formation of large scale structure in the Universe requires the extra mass provided by dark matter

    6. Dark Matter Dominates the Structure of the Universe • Center for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago • The formation of clusters and large-scale filaments proceeds in a universe filled with cold dark matter • The box is 43 million parsecs (or 140 million light years) • The simulation begins at z=30 when the age of the Universe was less than 1% of its current age and the distribution of matter is nearly uniform • Small fluctuations grow resulting in structures from the smallest bright clumps with sizes and masses similar to those of galaxies to the large filaments • The structure does not change much between z=0.5 and z=0 • The expansion of the universe is accelerating as the "dark energy" becomes dominant at z<1 • On large scales seen here, gravity cannot compete with the dark energy-driven acceleration and the growth of structure ceases

    7. The Evolution of Dark Matter • A loose network of dark matter filaments collapses under the relentless pull of gravity, and grows clumpier over time. • Dark matter filaments formed first and provided the structure for the formation of stars and galaxies from ordinary matter • Without dark matter, there would have been insufficient mass in the universe for structures to collapse and galaxies to form.

    8. Forming Galaxy Groups (like ours) The formation and evolution of these groups, which are very common in the Universe, are dominated by the gravitational pull of dark matter • The formation proceeds hierarchically. Small-mass objects form first at z>5, grow in size and merge, creating larger and larger systems • Galactic "cannibalism" persists even to the present day epoch • The two main objects approaching at z~0 will merge in about a billion years into the future • Many of the small systems do not lose their identity and become satellites orbiting in the gravitational pull of larger systems 4.3 Mpc or 14 million LY

    9. A disk galaxy in the process of formation at the epoch where the virtual universe of the simulation was "only" one and a half billion years old The young galaxy forms in a high-density peak in which several large-scale filaments of matter intersect These filaments deliver a fresh supply of gas and dark matter to the galaxy The accreting gas fuels very active star formation, while accreted dark matter and smaller galaxies lead to the rapid growth of the galaxy's mass 36 kpc 72 kpc 144 kpc 288 kpc Galaxy Formation Dark matter provides the gravitational mass necessary for galaxy formation to proceed

    10. Galaxies Grow through Mergers Intergalactic gas Galaxy building blocks observed with Hubble Clumps concentrated by dark matter lead to galaxies Simulation The cosmic web of dark matter, gas, and galaxies in a young universe

    11. Galaxy interactions require more mass than we can see computer simulation (U Vic) The real thing Antennae Galaxy (HST)

    12. The visible portion of a galaxy lies deep in a halo of dark matter

    13. Is Dark Matter Really Necessary? • Newton’s theory of gravity must be modified at high acceleration (general relativity) • Are modifications also needed at very low acceleration? Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND)

    14. MOND can explain galaxy rotation curves • Newton’s laws are modified with a new term at very low acceleration • Instead of F=ma, MOND asserts that… • where m(a/ao) = 1 for a >> a0 m(a/ao)=a/a0 for a << ao ao is about 10-10 m s-1 • The free constant ao is selected to fit the rotation curves of galaxies • At ‘normal’ accelerations, m(a/ao)=1 and Newton’s laws hold

    15. MOND can’t explain it all • While MOND can reproduce galaxy rotation curves, it is harder to explain • Galaxy cluster velocity dispersions • Observations of gravitational lenses • The Bullet Cluster and the DM ring • MOND still requires DM to account for all the observations • Which is a simpler explanation, DM or MOND+DM?

    16. The Dark Universe I • Up until the present epoch, the gravity of dark matter has dominated the universe • Dark matter filaments concentrated luminous matter to form stars galaxies • Dark matter dominates the evolution of galaxy clusters and groups • Dark matter dominates the interactions of galaxies