Dark Energy – a cosmic mystery - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Dark Energy – a cosmic mystery PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Dark Energy – a cosmic mystery

play fullscreen
1 / 107
Dark Energy – a cosmic mystery
98 Views
Download Presentation
arne
Download Presentation

Dark Energy – a cosmic mystery

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Dark Energy – a cosmic mystery

  2. Quintessence C.Wetterich A.Hebecker, M.Doran, M.Lilley, J.Schwindt, C.Müller, G.Schäfer, E.Thommes, R.Caldwell, M.Bartelmann, K.Kharwan, G.Robbers, T.Dent, S.Steffen, L.Amendola, M.Baldi , N.Brouzakis , N.Tetradis, D.Mota, V.Pettorino, T.Krüger, M.Neubert

  3. What is our universe made of ? fire , air, water, soil ! quintessence !

  4. Dark Energy dominates the Universe Energy - density in the Universe = Matter + Dark Energy 1/4 + 3/4

  5. What is Dark Energy ?

  6. Composition of the universe Ωb = 0.045 Ωdm= 0.225 Ωh = 0.73

  7. critical density • ρc =3 H² M² critical energy density of the universe ( M : reduced Planck-mass , H : Hubble parameter ) • Ωb=ρb/ρc fraction in baryons energy density in baryons over critical energy density

  8. Baryons/Atoms Dust Ωb=0.045 Only 5 percent of our Universe consist of known matter ! SDSS

  9. Abell 2255 Cluster ~300 Mpc

  10. Ωb=0.045 from nucleosynthesis, cosmic background radiation

  11. Matter : Everything that clumps Abell 2255 Cluster ~300 Mpc

  12. Dark Matter Ωm = 0.27 total “matter” Most matter is dark ! So far tested only through gravity Every local mass concentration gravitational potential Orbits and velocities of stars and galaxies measurement of gravitational potential and therefore of local matter distribution

  13. Ωm= 0.27 gravitational lens , HST

  14. Gravitationslinse,HST

  15. dark matter distribution in the Universe HST

  16. Matter : Everything that clumps Ωm= 0.27 Abell 2255 Cluster ~300 Mpc

  17. spatially flat universe Ωtot = 1 • theory (inflationary universe ) Ωtot =1.0000……….x • observation ( WMAP ) Ωtot =1.02 (0.02)

  18. picture of the big bang

  19. Mean values WMAP 2003 Ωtot =1.02 Ωm =0.27 Ωb =0.045 Ωdm =0.225

  20. Ωtot=1

  21. Ωtot=1

  22. WMAP 2006 Polarization

  23. Dark Energy Ωm + X = 1 Ωm : 1/4 Ωh : 3/4 Dark Energy h : homogenous , often ΩΛ instead of Ωh

  24. Space between clumps is not empty :Dark Energy !

  25. Dark Energy density isthe same at every point of space “ homogeneous “ No force in absence of matter –“ In what direction should it draw ? “

  26. Predictions for dark energy cosmologies The expansion of the Universe accelerates today !

  27. dark energy and accelerated expansion second important property of dark energy: increase of Ωh causes accelerated expansion of the Universe change from deceleration to acceleration a few billion years ago

  28. Structure formation : One primordial fluctuation spectrum CMB agrees with Galaxy distribution Lyman – α and Gravitational Lensing ! Waerbeke

  29. Power spectrum Baryon - Peak galaxy – correlation – function M.Tegmark + … Structure formation : One primordial fluctuation- spectrum SDSS

  30. consistent cosmological model !

  31. Composition of the Universe Ωb = 0.045 visible clumping Ωdm= 0.22 invisibleclumping Ωh = 0.73 invisiblehomogeneous

  32. Dark Energy – a cosmic mystery

  33. What is Dark Energy ? Cosmological Constant or Quintessence ?

  34. Cosmological Constant- Einstein - • Constant λ compatible with all symmetries • No time variation in contribution to energy density • Why so small ? λ/M4 = 10-120 • Why important just today ?

  35. cosmological constant • poorly understood • naïve arguments on natural size based on estimate of quantum fluctuations often miss possible crucial symmetries or fixed point behavior • anthropic principle : a sophisticated way to say that we do not know – or a theory has no explanation …

  36. Dynamical or staticdark energy ?

  37. Cosm. Const. | Quintessence static | dynamical

  38. Energy density ρ ~ ( 2.4×10 -3 eV )- 4 Reduced Planck mass M=2.44×10 27 eV Newton’s constant GN=(8πM²) Cosmological mass scales Only ratios of mass scales are observable ! homogeneous dark energy: ρh/M4 = 6.5 10ˉ¹²¹ matter: ρm/M4= 3.5 10ˉ¹²¹

  39. Time evolution tˉ² matter dominated universe tˉ3/2 radiation dominated universe • ρm/M4 ~ aˉ³ ~ • ρr/M4 ~ aˉ4~ t -2radiation dominated universe Huge age small ratio Same explanation for small dark energy?

  40. Quintessence Dynamical dark energy , generated by scalarfield (cosmon) C.Wetterich,Nucl.Phys.B302(1988)668, 24.9.87 P.J.E.Peebles,B.Ratra,ApJ.Lett.325(1988)L17, 20.10.87

  41. Prediction : homogeneous dark energyinfluences recent cosmology- of same order as dark matter - Original models do not fit the present observations …. modifications

  42. Quintessence Cosmon – Field φ(x,y,z,t) similar to electric field , but no direction ( scalar field ) Homogeneous und isotropic Universe : φ(x,y,z,t)=φ(t) Potential und kinetic energy of the cosmon -field contribute to a dynamical and homogenous energy density of the Universe !

  43. Cosmon • Scalar field changes its value even in the presentcosmological epoch • Potential und kinetic energy of cosmon contribute to the energy density of the Universe • Time - variable dark energy : ρh(t) decreases with time !

  44. Evolution of cosmon field Field equations Potential V(φ) determines details of the model V(φ) =M4 exp( - αφ/M ) for increasing φ the potential decreases towards zero !

  45. Cosmon • Tiny mass • mc ~ H (depends on time ! ) • New long - range interaction

  46. “Fundamental” Interactions Strong, electromagnetic, weak interactions On astronomical length scales: graviton + cosmon gravitation cosmodynamics

  47. cosmon : “the Higgs particle of dynamical dark energy” may be an effective or composite field , e.g. in certain modified gravity theories appears as quintessence field, chameleon, …and with many other names

  48. Dynamical or staticdark energy ?