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Physical Properties of Minerals. Naming Minerals . Color Glauconite (greek: glaucos = blue-green) Other Properties, Uses Magnetite Components Chromite Places Muscovite (Moscow) People Biotite . Chemicals (And Minerals) Are Classified By Their Anions .

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naming minerals
Naming Minerals

Color

  • Glauconite (greek: glaucos = blue-green)

Other Properties, Uses

  • Magnetite

Components

  • Chromite

Places

  • Muscovite (Moscow)

People

  • Biotite
for example iron compounds have little in common
For Example: Iron Compounds Have Little in Common
  • Fe: Gray, Metallic
  • FeCl2: Light Green, Water Soluble
  • FeSO4: Light Green, Water Soluble
  • FeCO3: Brown, Fizzes in Acid
  • FeS2: Dense, Brittle, Metallic, Cubic Crystals
on the other hand sulfides have many properties in common
On the Other Hand, Sulfides have Many Properties in Common
  • FeS2
  • CuFeS2
  • PbS
  • ZnS2

All are Dense, Brittle, Metallic, have Cubic Crystals

identifying minerals7
Identifying Minerals

Color -Sometimes Distinctive

  • Often Unreliable
  • Affected By:
    • Chemical Impurities
    • Surface Coating
    • Grain Size
    • Weathering
identifying minerals continued
Identifying Minerals (Continued)

Hardness

  • Resistance to Scratching
  • Directly related to relative strength of atomic bonds
  • Scratch Test (Mohs)
  • Indentation Test (Knoop)

Common Errors due to:

  • Weathering, ‘Chalk' marks
  • Breaking vs. Scratching
mohs vs knoop scales
Mohs vs. Knoop Scales
  • Talc: very small
  • Gypsum, Fingernail: 30
  • Calcite, Penny: 135
  • Fluorite: 163
  • Apatite: 430
  • Feldspar, Glass: 560
  • Quartz: 820
  • Topaz: 1340
  • Corundum: 2100
  • Diamond: 7000
identifying minerals continued10
Identifying Minerals (Continued)

Density

  • Directly related to masses of component atoms and their spacing
  • Usually very consistent
density gm cm 3 weight relative to water
Density - gm/cm3 (weight relative to water )
  • Air: 0.001Wood - Balsa: 0.1, Pine: 0.5, Oak: 0.6-0.9Gasoline: 0.7, Motor Oil: 0.9Ice: 0.92Water: 1.00Sugar: 1.59Halite: 2.18Quartz: 2.65Most Major Minerals: 2.6-3.0Aluminum: 2.7
density
Density
  • Pyrite, Hematite, Magnetite: 5.0Galena: 7.5Iron: 7.9Copper: 9Lead: 11.4Mercury: 13.6Uranium: 19Gold: 19.3Platinum: 21.4Iridium: 22.4 (densest material on Earth)
density is extremely consistent
Density is Extremely Consistent

NaCl

Mol Wt. = 22.99 (Na) + 35.45 (Cl) = 58.44

Cl: 8 at corners of unit cube shared 8 ways. 8 x 1/8=1

Cl: 6 in centers of cube face shared 2 ways, 6 x ½ = 3

4 Cl per unit cell

Na: 12 along edges shared 4 ways, 12 x ¼ = 3

Na: One in center of cell

4 Na per unit cell.

density is extremely consistent14
Density is Extremely Consistent

Mol. Wt of a unit cell of NaCl = 4 x 58.44 = 233.76

233.76 gm of NaCl = 6.02 x 1023 unit cells

One unit cell = 233.76 gm/ 6.02 x 1023 = 38.83 x 10-23 gm

Unit cell = .564 nm on a side

Unit cell volume = .1794 x10-27 m3 = 17.94 x10-23 cm3

Density = 38.83 x 10-23 gm/17.94 x10-23 cm3 = 2.164 gm/cm3

Textbook value: 2.16 gm/cm3

identifying minerals continued15
Identifying Minerals (Continued)

Luster

  • Metallic or Nonmetallic is the most important distinction.
  • Resinous, waxy, silky, etc. are self-explanatory.
  • Vitreous is often used for glassy luster.
identifying minerals continued16
Identifying Minerals (Continued)

Cleavage

  • Tendency to split along smooth planes between atoms in crystal
  • Thus directly related to atomic structure
  • Related to Crystal Form
  • Every cleavage face is a possible crystal face
  • Not every crystal face is a cleavage face. Quartz commonly forms crystals but lacks cleavage.
parting
Parting
  • Related to Cleavage
  • Occurs Along Specific Atomic Planes
  • Not Present in All Cases
  • Due to Impurities, Inclusions Along Atomic Plane
  • Common in Quartz, Magnetite
identifying minerals continued18
Identifying Minerals (Continued)

Crystal Form

  • Takes Luck & Practice
  • Well-formed crystals are uncommon
  • Crystal Classification is somewhat subtle

Fracture

  • Conchoidal = Curving, smooth (Glass, etc.)
identifying minerals continued19
Identifying Minerals (Continued)

Geologic Setting

  • Some minerals occur in all geologic settings: quartz, feldspar, pyrite
  • Some minerals occur mostly in sedimentary settings: calcite, dolomite
  • Some minerals occur mostly in igneous settings: olivine
  • Some minerals occur mostly in metamorphic settings: garnet, kyanite
identifying minerals continued20
Identifying Minerals (Continued)

Special Properties

  • Taste, Magnetism, Etc.

Experience And Reading

Professional Methods

  • Chemical Analysis
  • X-Ray Studies
  • Thin Section