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Foundations of psycholinguistics . Week 4 Early speech sound development Vasiliki (Celia) Antoniou. Today. Brief review about prosody Speech perception Speech production Assignment queries. Review: Prosody. Includes properties like rhythm/stress, intonation

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foundations of psycholinguistics

Foundations of psycholinguistics

Week 4

Early speech sound development

Vasiliki (Celia) Antoniou

today
Today
  • Brief review about prosody
  • Speech perception
  • Speech production
  • Assignment queries
review prosody
Review: Prosody
  • Includes properties like rhythm/stress, intonation
  • Low auditory frequency information, transmitted to the womb (5-7 month of gestation)
  • Rhythm is used by newborns to recognise and prefer their native language
  • Prosody helps infants to initialise acquisition of other linguistic areas = bootstrapping
    • Lexicon: Stress pattern used to segment words
    • Syntax: Sensitivity to pauses and other prosodic markers that signal clause boundaries
prosody and speech perception
Prosody and speech perception

From what age can English infants use word stress to recognise words in fluent speech?

0 months 5 months

  • 7 months 10 months
speech sound perception
Speech sound perception

Voice Onset Time in stops (e.g. [b] vs. [p]): Time betweenopening of closure and onset of vocal fold vibrations

bpa 0 ms VOT

bpa 20 ms VOT

bpa 40 ms VOT

bpa60 ms VOT

ba

pa

Wood 1976

categorical perception
Categorical perception
  • Human adults are better at discriminating pairs of sounds across category boundaries (e.g. ba1 vs. pa1) than within categories (e.g. ba1 vs. ba2)
other contrasts
Othercontrasts
  • As for adults, speech rate affects categorisation

the same token can be perceived as pa in fast speech and ba in slow speech

  • Infants can also perceive subtle differences between vowels (e.g. a vs. o, see Kuhl’s work)

although they have some difficulties with speaker variation

audiovisual integration
Audiovisual integration
  • Adults automatically integrate audio and visual information
  • McGurkeffect: audio ba and visual ga lead to perception of intermediate ‘da’ in most adult subjects
  • This effect has also been found in infants as young as 5 months!
what is human about this
Whatishuman about this?
  • Humanspeech perception abilitiespresentatbirthare shared with otheranimals
    • chinchillas and quailscanbetrained to perceivesoundscategorically

i.e Ba vs. Pa

    • tamarin monkeysand rats candiscriminatebetweenrhythmicallydifferentlanguages

Japanese quail

Cotton-top Tamarin

later speech perception
‘Later’ speech perception

Methods to investigate speech sound discrimination later in life (4-18 months)

Infant EEG

Conditioned HeadturnProcedure

changes in speech perception
Changes in speech perception

Percentage of infants reaching CHT criterion

Engl. 6-8m Engl. 8-10 ms Engl. 10-12m Native 11-12m

Werker & Tees (1984)

changes in speech perception1
Changes in speech perception
  • sensitivityloss for other non-native contrasts
      • Decrease for r-l distinction in Japanese infants at8m
      • Decrease for [u]-[y] in English infants at 6m
    • but: stable performance for some clicks, and for d-th distinction in French learners
  • enhancementfor difficultnative contrastsbetween 6 and 12 months
      • r-l discrimination increased in English learners
      • na-ŋaincreased in Filipino learners
milestones in native speech perception
Milestones in native speech perception

Birth

Languagepreference

6 - 9 m

Stress perception

6 m

Vowel perception

8 – 12 mths

Consonant perception

native speech production
Native speech production

First vocalisations

Birth– 1 month

Crying, sounds of (dis) comfort

  • 1 month– 5 months
  • Vocalisations with mouthclosure
  • Cooing, first productions thatsoundlike glottal or back vowel or consonants
  • First vocal play, imitation
speech production preparation larynx descent and speech
Speech production preparationLarynx descent and speech
  • larynx ishigher in infants (b) thanin adults(a)
  • descentstartsat3 months
  • speech and choking possible from4-6 months
  • descentfinishesat4 years (boys: more changes duringpuberty)
native speech production1
Native speech production

Babbling phases

First vocalisations

Birth– 1 month

Crying, sounds of (dis) comfort

5-6 months

Reduplicative canonical babbling (i.e. babababa)

  • 1 month– 5 months
  • Vocalisations with mouthclosure
  • Cooing, first productions thatsoundlike glottal or back vowel or consonants
  • First vocal play, imitation
babbling phase i
Babbling Phase I

reduplicative/ canonical babbling

  • first speech-like productions
  • repetitions of one syllable

e.g. [babababa]

native speech production2
Native speech production

Babbling phases

First vocalisations

5-6 months

Reduplicative/ canonical babbling (i.e. babababa)

Birth– 1 month

Crying, sounds of (dis) comfort

  • 1 month– 5 months
  • Vocalisations with mouthclosure
  • Cooing, first productions thatsoundlike glottal or back vowel or consonants
  • First vocal play, imitation

8-10 months

Variegatedbabbling (i.e. bagota)

babbling phase ii
Babbling Phase II

variegatedbabbling

  • combinations of differentsyllables

e.g. [badotu]

  • soundsand intonation adapt to

resembletargetlanguage

e.g. more stops in Swedish

native speech production3
Native speech production

Babbling phases

First vocalisations

5-6 months

Reduplicative/ canonical babbling (i.e. babababa)

Birth– 1 month

Crying, sounds of (dis) comfort

10-12 months: jargon

Unintelligiblechains

(‘babble stories’)

  • 1 month– 5 months
  • Vocalisations with mouthclosure
  • Cooing, first productions thatsoundlike glottal or back vowel or consonants
  • First vocal play, imitation

8-10 months

Variegatedbabbling (i.e. bagota)

native speech production4
Native speech production

First vocalisations

Babbling phases

10-12 months: jargon

Unintelligiblechains

(‘babble stories’)

5-6 months

Reduplicative/ canonical babbling (i.e. babababa)

Birth– 1 month

Crying, sounds of (dis) comfort

10 -16 months

First word production

  • 1 month– 5 months
  • Vocalisations with mouthclosure
  • Cooing, first productions thatsoundlike glottal or back vowel or consonants
  • First vocal play, imitation

8-10 months

Variegatedbabbling (i.e. bagota)

  • 1. Transition frombabbling
  • 2. No ‘silentperiod’ in between
  • smooth transition,
  • babbling and wordsco - occur
more about early phonology
More about early phonology
  • Good summary on infants speech perception
    • Houston (2011). Infant speech perception. In Seewald & Tharpe: Comprehensive Handbook of Pediatric Audiology. Plural Publishing (on Moodle)
  • Good book on early speech and language
    • de Boysson-Bardies (1999). How Language Comes to Children: From Birth to Two Years. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
1 st assignment
1st Assignment
  • Deadline??

Friday, November 9

  • Try testing the Online submission system (OCS)
  • Check the Departmental handout for formatting your essay and referencing rules (p. 89 – 96): http://www.essex.ac.uk/linguistics/publications/booklets/undergraduate_handbook/Handbook%20UG%202012-13.pdf
  • Exemplary essays: http://www.essex.ac.uk/linguistics/current_students/Guidelines_e_d_t/Assignment/exemp_essays.aspx
  • Word limit?

1000 words

  • Topic?

How does infants’ perception of speech sounds change during the first year of life?

1 st assignement
1stassignement
  • Read your sources: the coursebook, the lecture slides, the additional reading materials, the class slides and notes
  • Make a plan!

Introduction, Main Body, Conclusion, make a note of the key points you need to address

Hints:

  • Vowel vs consonant contrasts and perception
  • Infants get better at different native contrasts
  • Check our previous class presentations for more about prosody and its contribution to speech perception
  • E-mail me an outline!
  • Support your arguments with examples and reference to studies where possible.
  • Acknowledge your sources otherwise you commit plagiarism!
format
Format
  • Fonts: 12, Times New Roman, double spaced
  • Italicise Journal names, article / book titles that appear in your main text body
  • Be consistent! Whatever way you choose to do things it should be (p. 66) when you cite pages and not (Mehler: 66) and further down (Mehler, 69) or (Mehler, p. 69)
  • Follow this link for additional help with structure, vocabulary and expressions, writing your references, abbreviations: http://privatewww.essex.ac.uk/~vanton/ScanImage004.pdf
common essay mistakes
Common essay mistakes
  • Include an introduction and a conclusion!
  • Reference all the resources you have used and remember to include page numbers. Create a reference list at the end of your essay......
  • Create paragraphs according to topic..when you change topic, change paragraph.
  • Pay attention to punctuation.
  • Avoid using long sentences.
  • When you write something use an example to illustrate what you say, and if needed, reference the example.
  • Make sure that what you put in the essay is absolutely necessary –this will reduce your word count
  • Use theory and references, your textbook etc. and do not simply rely on class/lecture notes
slide27

When you’ve written your essay leave it for 1-2 days and get back to it later..you’ll be surprised!

  • When you can’t find a reference here are a few tips:
  • Search the reference list of our text book, usually the reference will be there.
  • If not search the library catalogue or google the reference (author’s name, date).
read the essay 3 times
Read the essay 3 times
  • 1st you read in order to check the content: Have I answered the questions? Is what I write correct according to what I’ve read? Have I left anything important out? Do I have any examples?
  • The 2nd time you read in order to check the structure: intro-conclusion, cohesion, do the ideas flow logically?, long sentences, do I have paragraphs, a reference list, have I used signposting?
slide29

The 3rd time you read in order to check the punctuation, whether you’ve followed one way in referencing, line spacing, fonts and font size, page numbering, your details, etc.

  • Don’t forget to write your class instructor’s name!