1 / 23

Psycholinguistics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Psycholinguistics. What is psycholinguistics ? Psycholinguistics is the study of the cognitive processes that support the acquisition and use of language . . The scope of psycholinguistics :. 1- Historically = First language (L1)

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Psycholinguistics' - thisbe

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

What is psycholinguistics ?

Psycholinguistics is the study of the cognitive processes that support the acquisition and use of language .

The scope of psycholinguistics
The scope of psycholinguistics:

1- Historically = First language (L1)

1-What is the nature of the input that is critical for language to develop?

2-To what extent is this developmental process biologically constrained ?

3- How are words recognized when listening to speech or reading text ?

The questions that have been the focus of investigation :


4- How do we understand sentences and texts ?

5- By what means are lexical and syntactic ambiguities resolved?

6- How are abstract thoughts mapped onto utterances prior to speaking?

2 recently bilinguals
2- Recently = Bilinguals

(Individuals who are acquiring or actively using more than one language)

Specific questions with respect to bilinguals are :

1- Is L2 acquisition different from L1 acquisition ?

2- To what extent does the L1 play a role in using the L2 ?


3- Are there roles governing code- switching (the use of more than one language in an utterance )?

4- How do speakers of more than one language keep the two languages apart?

5- How are languages acquired at some point in time lost or maintained over time ?

Review of psycholinguistic research on L2 acquisition and competent bilingual performance Assumptions :

- L2 learners and proficient bilinguals rely on similar cognitive mechanisms .

- Those mechanisms are generally universal across languages .

- The same cognitive resources are universally available to all learners. .

Cognitive models language production in bilinguals
Cognitive Models: Language Production in Bilinguals competent bilingual performance

Modelling language production of the competent bilingual

Levelt’s “Speaking” model (1989 , 1999) - Aim


1- Conceptualizer

  • 2- Formulator

    3- Articulator

Lexical items
Lexical items competent bilingual performance



* What happens in the production of these

items ??

  • The distinction bet. three levels: conceptusl, lemma and lexeme is crucial

  • to the model used.

Poulisse 1997 factors
Poulisse (1997) factors competent bilingual performance

* To turn a monolingual model into a bilingual model :

- L2 knowledge is typically incomplete

  • - L2 speech is more hesitant and contains more errors and slips

  • - L2 speech often carries traces of the L1

Keeping languages apart
Keeping Languages Apart competent bilingual performance

How bilingual speakers keep their languages apart ??

1- Earlier proposals suggested that there were ‘switches’.

2- Paradis has proposed the ‘sub-set hypothesis:

words from a given lang. form a

sub-set of the total inventory. Each sub-set can be activated independently.

Language choice
Language choice : competent bilingual performance

How language choice is implemented ?

1-semantic specification.

2-syntactic information.

.3-A pointer to a particular lexeme

  • Thus there are a number of steps in the process of lexical access where choices have to be made

**Lemma consists of three parts

Experimental studies of language production in l1 and l2
Experimental Studies of Language Production in L1 and L2 competent bilingual performance

Comprehension studies:

A word ,sentence or text can be presented and we can examine the way in which processing reflects its structure and meaning .

Production studies
Production studies: competent bilingual performance

Investigate the planning of utterances in real time.

1- Picture-naming task.

  • Description

  • Results

    2- Picture-word interference

    - Description

    - Results


Illustrative Research on Second Language Acquisition and Bilingualism

The Non-selective Nature of Lexical Access

  • - Lexical decision task

  • Description

Gerard & Scarborough(1989) study

Subsequent research has supported the claim that lexical access is language non- selective in comprehension


Developing Lexical Proficiency in a Second Language Bilingualism

How does the nature of activated lexical information change with increasing proficiency in L2 ??

The focus= the availability of the L1 translation equivalent

during L2 processing.


Study by :Feldman (1984) Bilingualism

-comparison between picture naming

and single word translation.Aim

Conclusion:bilinguals conceptually mediate L2 without L1 influencedepending on the level of L2 proficiency.

* In earlier stages of L2 development there was indeed lexical mediation whereby L1 translation equivalents were activated to facilitate access to concepts



other studies suggest that conceptual processing is directly available for L2 for both proficient bilinguals and learners.

Forgetting and Relearning

A growing field of research now deals with the opposite of language acquisition: language attrition and language loss.

Through non-use of a language ,the level of activation of knowledge decreases and eventually lost.


‘Savings’ Model available for L2 for both proficient bilinguals and learners.

The assumption

The procedure

The results showed significant savings effects for the old words.

Relearning the old words was easier than learning completely new words


Implications available for L2 for both proficient bilinguals and learners.

Accessibility of linguistics element



must have been

acquired and stored

must be accessible in time


  • *Some researchers are now actually training early learners of L2 to access linguistic elements as quickly as possible

  • the use of computers

  • - language testing

  • Our linguistic knowledge is unstable

  • through extensive contact in a variety of context, it will gradually develop a full close to native set of links


  • * of L2 to access linguistic elements as quickly as possible*No support for the hypothesis that bilingualism & learning an additional language at any age will have negative consequences

  • Bilingualis based much more on attitude and beliefs than on facts

  • *Positive effects of bilingualism at early age have little effect

  • Growing internationalization in many parts of the world will show the need for

  • multilingualism on all levels.

Done by 4 th year gr b
Done by : of L2 to access linguistic elements as quickly as possible4th year/Gr. B

Ohood Al-Qurashi

Heba Al- Ansari

Gohfran Samkary

Mona Bagazi

Norah Al-Emari

Mrooj Al-Jezani


Makkia Yusuf



Rahma Mulla

Aisha Al Khuza’I

‘Alyaa Al Garni