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Bolivia PowerPoint Presentation

Bolivia

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Bolivia

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  1. Bolivia The Plurinational State of Bolivia

  2. Land • Area: 1.1 million sq. km. (425,000 sq. mi. - Texas + California ) • Cities: Capital--La Paz (administrative--pop. 800,385); Sucre (constitutional--292,080). Other major cities--Santa Cruz (1,486,115), Cochabamba (587,220), El Alto (858,716). (Population est. 2004.) • La Paz is the highest of the world’s capital cities--3,600 meters (11,800 ft.) above sea level. • The adjacent city of El Alto, at 4,200 meters (13,800 ft.), is one of the fastest-growing in the hemisphere. Santa Cruz, the nation’s industrial and commercial hub in the eastern lowlands, is also experiencing rapid population and economic growth. • Terrain: High plateau (altiplano), temperate and semi-tropical valleys, and tropical lowlands. • Climate: Varies with altitude--from humid and tropical to semi-arid and cold.

  3. People • Population (July 2009 est., U.S. State Dept.): 9,775,246. • Annual population growth rate: 1.77%. • Religions: Predominantly Roman Catholic; minority Protestant. • Languages: Spanish, Quechua, Aymara, Guarani. • Education (2001): Years compulsory--ages 7-14. Literacy--86.7%. • Health (2008): Infant mortality rate--44.6 per 1,000 births. • Work force (2008, 4.46 million): Nonagricultural employment--2.48 million; services, including government--42%; industry and commerce--58%. • Ethnic groups (2001): 55% indigenous (primarily Aymara and Quechua), 30% mestizo or mixed, 15% European.

  4. Government • Type: Republic. • Independence: August 6, 1825. • Constitution: 1967; revised 1994; voters approved a new constitution on January 25, 2009. • Branches: Executive--president and cabinet. Legislative--bicameral. Judicial--five levels of jurisdiction, headed by Supreme Court with a separate Constitutional Tribunal, and a National Electoral Court which rules on matters related to the electoral process. • Subdivisions: Nine departments (similar to states), headed by elected governors. • Major political parties: • Movement Toward Socialism (MAS), Social Democratic Power (PODEMOS), Nationalist Revolutionary Movement (MNR), National Unity (UN), Social Alliance (AS). • Suffrage: Universal adult (age 18), compulsory.

  5. Economy • GDP: $18.94 billion.; Annual growth rate: 5.6%; per capita income $4,500. • Natural resources: Hydrocarbons (natural gas, petroleum); minerals (zinc, silver, lead, gold, and iron). • Agriculture (11.3% of GDP): Major products--Soybeans, cotton, potatoes, corn, sugarcane, rice, wheat, coffee, beef, barley, and quinoa. • Arable land--27%. • Industry (36.9% of GDP): Types--Mineral and hydrocarbon extraction, manufacturing, commerce, textiles, food processing, chemicals, plastics, mineral smelting, and petroleum refining. • Services, including government: 51.8% of GDP. • Trade: Exports (2008 est.)--$6.8 billion. • Major export products--natural gas, tin, zinc, coffee, silver, wood, gold, jewelry, soybeans, and soy products. Major export markets (2007)--U.S. (9.8%), Brazil (46%), Argentina (5.8%), Republic of Korea (4.8%), Peru (4.1%), and Japan (7.6%). Imports (2008 est.)--$4.9 billion. Major products--machinery and transportation equipment, consumer products, construction and mining equipment. Major suppliers (2007)--U.S. (9.8%), Argentina (16.2%), Brazil (29.9%), Chile (10.5%), Peru (8.1%).

  6. Source: Perry-Castaneda Map collection, UT-Austin

  7. Political History • 1532-1809 Colonial Rule • 1809-1879 Independence, resource driven conflict • 1879-1884 The War of the Pacific • resources territory - Chile • http://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/servlet/view/search?sort=Pub_List_No_InitialSort%2CPub_Date%2CPub_List_No%2CSeries_No&q=bolivia • http://www.nytimes.com/2002/07/08/world/lingering-feud-with-chile-threatens-bolivia-s-pipeline-plan.html?pagewanted=all

  8. Political History • 1880-1932 Republican government • 1932-1951 Chaco war, Revolution • Resources, territory - Paraguay • 1952-1982 Revolution to Dictatorship • 1982 – transition to democracy

  9. Bolivian History • Republican Era • 1879-83 War of the Pacific • Loses coastal access, nitrate fields to Chile • Late 1800s prosperity, stability –global price of silver • 1900s tin replaces silver • Repressed indigenous labor • Denied education, economic opportunity, political participation • Laissez faire capitalist economic policies • 1932-35 Chaco War • Defeated by Paraguay • Ruling classes discredited • New political demands emerge

  10. Bolivian History • Revolution in 1952, start of democracy • Nationalist Revolutionary Movement Party (MNR) • Wins elections in 1951 but denied access to office, foments revolution • President Victor Paz Estenssoro • Introduces universal adult suffrage • Land reform • Rural education • Nationalization of the tin mines

  11. Return to Democracy • 1964-1985 period of instability, elections and coups. • 1985 Presidential elections: • Nationalist Democratic Action Party 33% pop. Vote • MNR wins 30% pop. Vote • Movement of the Revolutionary Left (MIR) wins 10% • In Congressional run off an MNR and MIR alliance brings MNR party leader and former president Estenssoro to the executive branch once again. • Constitutional rule: Congress votes on President without a majority vote outcome from the popular election.

  12. Estenssoro and other Presidents • Estenssoro admin1985-89 • economic problems stabilized • 1989 elections Paz Zamora (MIR and Patriotic Accord alliance) wins • Neoliberal economic reforms continued, crackdown on domestic terrorism • 1993 elections MNR candidate Sanchez de Lozada • Economic reform pursued • “Capitalization” – form of privatization where investors acquired 50% ownership and management of state firms (oil, telecommunications, airlines, railroads, electric) with money directed to the pension system instead of the Treasury • Very unpopular – protests from 94-96

  13. Other Presidents • 1997 Gen. Hugo Banzer, ADN party (Nationalist Democratic Action) • neoliberal econ reforms continue • No job creation • Perception of corruption • Coca eradication systematic • Increasing social protests • 2001 diagnosed with cancer, resigns, dies one year later

  14. 2002-present • 2002 elections/MNR platform: • Sanchez de Lozada (MNR) 22.5% • Job creation, anti-corruption, social inclusion • Evo Morales (MAS) 20.9% (movement toward socialism) • Critical moment: • 9/03 tourists trapped in town of Sorata • Bolivian security rescue results in deaths of peasants, security forces • Bolivian protesters pressure government for change on variety of policy areas • Export of NG through Chile (wop) • La Paz blockaded, conditions worsened • Lozada resigns, Oct 2003 • VP Carlos Mesa Gisbert assumes office • Pledges to reform hydrocarbons law • 7/18/04 national referendum on hydrocarbons overwhelmingly passed • 5/17/05 Congress passes confiscatory hydrocarbons law • Demonstrations continued • Mesa resigns May 2005

  15. Evo Morales • 12/18/05 Evo Morales wins 54% of popular vote. • Platform: • Leader of coca growers – end illegalization • Nationalize hydrocarbons • Alleviate poverty/end discrimination • Constituent assembly to reform constitution • Constitutional reform • Assembly in place and deliberating • Issue of regional autonomy (federalization) under consideration.

  16. Multiculturalism and Constitutional Reform • Indigenous peoples have argued that states should be acknowledged as “multi-cultural”. • Constitutional reforms should bring the majority into a “Multinational and pluricultural state” • A state with the right to participate, representative of the Original Nations, mestizo, and black peoples, mutual respect among nations and classes, with equality of conditions, a state directed by the oppressed and exploited”(Van Cott 136).

  17. Parallel debate on efficiency • How to improve government responsiveness? • Municipal independence • A form of federalization • Municipal decentralization: • Already a bureaucratic entity • Closest to the people • Only viable option for a unitary state like Bolivia • Option to oppose central government

  18. Constitutional reform • Minority presidents selected by Congress an overall drain on executive branch legitimacy • Minority support • Congressional intervention • Who is your power base when changes are necessary?