Living organisms are classified into 3 Domains. 1. Bacteria 2. Archaea 3. Eukarya. 4 Kingdoms in this Domain. Domain Eukarya has 4 Kingdoms. 1. Kingdom Protista 2. Kingdom Fungi 3. Kingdom Plantae 4. Kingdom Animalia. Kingdom Protista.
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4 Kingdoms in this Domain
1. Kingdom Protista
2. Kingdom Fungi
3. Kingdom Plantae
4. Kingdom Animalia
1st Plant-like Protist
Phytoplankton Algae (Sea Weed)
Euglenoids Red Algae
Diatoms Brown Algae
Dinoflagellates Green Algae
Spirogyra is a filamentous green algae. They form end-to-end chains of cells. Often found on the surfaces of ponds.
(similar to bacterial conjugation)
Multicellular green algae
Chara is a stonewort, the type of green algae believed to be most closely related to plants.
Volvox is a colonial green alga which has many individuals living together
Commercial importance of red algae:
Agar—laboratory use, gelatin used in Petri dishes
Carrageen—thickening agent in commercial products
Kelp—food, habitats for aquatic organisms
Pectin—used to make gelatin
Silica—the shells of these organisms are used to make glass, concrete,
Diatomaceous earth -dead diatoms settle to seafloor, collected and used in abrasives
abundant food source for marine organisms
Some are bio-luminescent
Red tide—population explosion of certain types of dinoflagellates. Kills large amounts of fish. Depletes water of oxygen and releases toxins into the water.
The toxins produces by the Red Tide can make humans sick. Harvesting shellfish is banned during this time.
This phylum is a typical example of the difficulties in categorizing protists:
1/3 have chloroplasts, the other 2/3 do not.
No sexual reproduction. Longitudinal fission.
Propels the body through water.
Trypanosoma transmitted by the bite of a tsetse fly, cause African Sleeping Sickness.
Below: Trypanosoma in a sample of human blood X 400.
Other flagellates are known to spread sexually by infecting the vagina and urethra of women, and the prostate, seminal vesicles and urethra of men.
Attaches to intestinal tract and causes diarrhea
Can become infected by drinking contaminated water from stream
Phylum Rhizopoda- amoebas, including Entamoeba hystolytica
Phylum Foraminifera- calcium carbonate shell
White Cliffs of Dover, Egyptian pyramids
The projections are called pseudopods or “false feet.”
Very diverse group; very complex single-celled organisms which use cilia for movement.
Life cycle of Plasmodium vivax,
Carried by the Anopheles