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Innovation in T ourism Based Services Rural D evelopment in Tourism. Ing. Magdalena Pichlerova, PhD. Department of Landscape Planning and Design Faculty of Ecology and Environment Technical University in Zvolen mpichler@vsld.tuzvo.sk. www.tuzvo.sk.

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slide1

Innovation in TourismBasedServices

RuralDevelopment in Tourism

Ing. Magdalena Pichlerova, PhD.

Department ofLandscapePlanning and Design

FacultyofEcology and Environment

TechnicalUniversity in Zvolen

mpichler@vsld.tuzvo.sk

www.tuzvo.sk

slide2

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

Aboutme

  • PhD. in Ecology
  • teacher, researcher and vice-dean for foreign affairs and development at the FEES
  • nomination project „Beech Primeval Forests Of the Carpathians“ inscribed
  • on the List of UNESCO WNH in 2007
  • project of the Foreign Commonwealth Office –dynamic visualization of the landscape

- invitation to the Highgrove Arboretum by Prince of Wales, initiative of elm introduction

slide4

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

Man is a being that constantly transforms the landscape: it is the only species that changes his living space purposely for no other reason

thanto satisfy his aesthetic delights.

(NanFairbrother - TheNatureofLandscapeDesign, 1974)

slide5

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

Lectureoverview

history

present

future

History and perception of rural areas

Ruralareas and landscape potential for tourism

Factors affecting tourismand nature tourism enterprises

Characteristics of tourism services

New products and their quality

slide6

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

Thedevelopmentofurbaninhabitantsthrough 1800–2000

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Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

  • city – ourlivingspaceforseveralcenturies
  • Homosapiens – cca 100 000 yearsago
  • theoldestpaintings – cca 25 000 yearsago
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Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

  • shift in genomeofhumansinceprimevalagesisnegligible – man isprimary a culturalbeing
  • - Homoerectus – Africa, Asia– Europe, evolution (pickers, hunters, neoliticagriculturalrevolution) – man isbecoming a set mechanizm in ecosystem – theresponsibilityforlandscape
slide9

Innovation in Tourism Based Services – Rural Development in Tourism

- 3 development stages of man – environment conditions relation

1st era

2nd era

3rd era

- fight for existence

  • man graduallyempowersnature to thedegreedependinguponhisknowledgeofproduction (tools),
  • natureexploatation
  • - eraofone-wayuseofresources

- eraofuniversal man development

slide10

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

human experience

living in landscape (nature)

(fixed in humankind genome)

man – a part of ecosystem

man – managing ecosystem

landscape = home

landscape = a place where we stop by sometimes

slide11

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

- tourism recorded the greatest development with urbanization and with development of such work that is not directly connected with earth – people indirectly searching the reunion with nature

- sport, stress elimination from a big city life – escape from the city, clean air, connection with nature, enjoying sceneries, fishing, relax, . . .

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Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

wilderness

culturalland

city

  • fortress?, marketplace?
  • centersofsecular and spiritualpower
  • marketwithrelics
  • placeforcrafts
  • „garden“
  • theresultofcooperationbetween a farmer and nature
  • a synonymofunforestedland
  • untachednature
  • bare land, uncultivated, uninhabited
  • part of a garden or naturalreservation
  • strictnaturalpreserve, theareaofintactnature, leftforthepurposesofresearch and to protectintactnature(def. IUCN)
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Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

  • nowadays the aesthetic values of the landscape and human relation towards landscape depends on (changesapprox. twice in our lifetime):
  • cultural background
  • history
  • life cycles of individuals
  • status at the division of labor / work
  • social status
  • inherited and gainedattitude ...
slide15

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

rural area - an area outside of cities and towns

country, back country, backwoods, boondocks, hinterland - a remote and

undeveloped area

farming area, farmland - a rural area where farming is practiced

geographic area, geographic region, geographical area, geographicalregion

- a demarcated area of the Earth

grazing land, ley, pasture, pastureland, lea - a field covered with grass or

herbage and suitable for grazing by livestock

countryside - rural regions

scrubland - an uncultivated region covered with scrub vegetation

weald - an area of open or forested country

wold - a tract of open rolling country (especially upland)

populated area, urban area - a geographical area constituting a city or town

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Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

Industry

Waterareas

countryside

country

flows

core

urban area

city

naturalenvironment

rural area

Forests

grazing land

wold

Agriculturalland

scrubland

farmland

weald

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Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

  • potential oftheplace– a motivation to visit a destination
  • services and the potential create a tourism product
  • while creating the product following steps can be observed:
  • step1: market research – depends on what are the tourists interest,
  • step 2: planning and creation of the product – a package of suitable
  • products can be created, the structure of the product,
  • step 3: communication – orientation of the product towards costumers,
  • step 4: determination of the price – the value is assigned,
  • step 5: distribution – distribution organization and propagation of the
  • product, commercialization.
slide18

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

Naturalpotential

depends on

  • reliefofthelandscape
  • geomorphologicalrelief
  • climate
  • waters
  • fauna
  • flora
slide19

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

Culturalpotential

depends on

  • cultural-historicalremains
  • (culturalfacilities, culturalevents, sportevents)
slide20

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

Factorsaffectingrecreation and naturetourismenterprises

Natural and socio-economicfactors

Factorsrelated to thepopulationsize and density

Factorsassociatedwithlandownership, knowledge, skills and attitudes

Factorslinked to conservation, protectedareas and diversification

Factorsassociatedwithco-operation, partnershipworking or competition and funding

Factorsconnectedwithlegislation, regulation and publicawareness

Simpson, M., Pichler, V., Martin, S., Brouwer, R., 2009

slide21

culture (history)

landscape „image“ (brand)

Landscape

Ruralareas

story

accessability

safety

attractiveness

slide22

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

atractivity

  • whatisattractive ?
  • lowlandswithbroadriverbedsversushighmountainrangeswithruggedterrain
  • landscapewith a high heterogenity
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Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

culture (history)

  • cultureof a certainplacereflectsitshistoricaldevelopment
  • theplace has theinformation on custums, typicalcrafts, traditions, language - geniusloci, thespiritof a place (evokes a certainfeelingsofthevisitor)
  • naturalbariers
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Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

„image“

  • a „key word“ that characterizes a certain place
  • every significant characteristic that influences the selection of the destination to bevisited
  • Interioroftheforest in theSmallCarpathians
slide26

Hungary

France

slide27

USA

Czechrepublic

slide28

Netherlands

Greece

Egypt

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Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

story

  • visitorcanfindhiswaybetter in a placehisis more familiarwith, he has somebasicinformation on
  • thewayofinterpretation

- storiesand myths

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Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

accessability

  • one of the main assumptions for tourism development
  • generally: I will not go to the places I can not get to, EXCEPT the target group that looks for adventure)
slide31

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

safety

  • more important overpastfewyears
  • targetgroup: families, seniors (forthemthesafetyisthetop-priorityrequest)
slide32

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

stagnation

No. ofvisitors

revival

consolidation

decline

development

exploration

involvement

time

slide33

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

EXPLORATION

  • explorationofthearea
  • No. ofvisitorsissmall
  • visitors are willing to accomodatetolocalconditions (language, culture, etc.)
  • no commercialacgtivities are organised
  • visitors are welcomed
  • influenceuponsocialenvironmentissmall, visitorisconsidered a guest
slide34

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

INVOLVEMENT

  • increasing No. of visitors
  • increased influence upon local communities
  • local inhabitants start to offer services (accommodation) and finds out about the economical advantages
  • way towards commercialization is opened
  • relation guest – host changed to client – service provider
slide35

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

DEVELOPMENT

  • attractivity and popularity of the place results into increase of No. of visitors
  • the area is becoming a tourist attraction in a real sense
  • changes in the spatial structure of the place
  • visiting the place is a commercial activity
slide36

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

CONSOLIDATION AND STAGNATION

  • No. of visitors stabilizes
  • the attractivity of the place („boom“) gradually decreases
  • entrepreneurs are oriented more on wideningtheirservices or theyevenlowertheprices to attract more (or new) clients
  • needforinnovation and new products
slide37

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

DECLINE

  • loss of interest in the place, it is becoming more uniform and less attractive
  • devastation of the environment of the place (erosion, deterioration of buildings, etc.)
  • BUT
  • overcoming the stagnation may result in further development of the place leading to its . . .
slide41

dates back to the early 19th century

  • 1820: coal mine in the U.S. was opened for tourism – gravity operated train
  • 1842: Thomas Cook Tours – package tours – encouraging tourismand enjoyment of the natural environment
  • 1869: Pacific Railroad – a journey around the world may be possible in 80 days

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

Having knowledge of the culture of the place visited

  • visiting or living in (missions) – a real knowledge versus building a biography

- attracting tourists – ecotourism versus adventure tourism

  • over the past 150 yrs people have become aware that everything moves
  • need for speed and need for thrills
slide42

„When people travel, they experience more freedom, have more contact with nature and with other people and generally have a more interesting time than usual. All of these things represent a gain compared to a normal life and can help reduce life's shortcomings at least temporarily....

.... many brief moments produce the feeling of satisfaction during the holidays“.

JostKrippendorf

Jost Krippendorf (1938-2003), tourism professor and researcher at the University of Bern, Switzerland; one of the founders of the sustainable tourism.

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

  • touristtales
  • tourist experience and time (memory)
  • evidence: postcards, videos, saved ephemera (entry tickets, season passes, ...), souvenirs, etc.
  • vacation adventures becomes stories in which the teller owns the experience
  • „ Been there, done that ! “
slide43

recounted experiences dissolve into family history and legend

  • the story of the individual's experience shifts to a story of family member's adventures
  • family legend: the collective family saga summarizing the activities and achievements of family members

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

  • how to be a legend and the biography of the tourist
slide44

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

Forest tourism – a remediation to the accelerated sublime issue ?

slide45

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

Thestoryof

LittleRedRidingHood

Rotkäpchen

Punahilkka

CapuccettoRosso

ScufițaRoșie

Červená Čiapočka

slide46

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

  • cultural and historical contexts
  • – Herodotus
  • (country full of bees...)
  • – Tacitus
  • (Hercynean forest...)
  • – Origenes
  • (trees in us, symbols ...)
  • – St. Bernard from Clairvaux
  • (you will never learn in school...)
  • – Simon Schama, Ethan Matt Kavaler
  • (Arboreal Gothic)
  • – Czeslaw Milosz, Mateolli and many others(inspiration)
slide47

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

  • impressions(aesthetical, imaginative,...)
  • wilderness
slide48

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

  • structured appearance
  • (monodominant or mixed)

- extreme dimensions

slide49

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

  • learning, science
  • (example of specialized tourism – scientific, interpretative)
slide50

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

The poll carried out in 2000 immediately prior to the visit of the Prince of Wales toBadín Primeval Forest showed that 4% of adults taking part in the poll were able toname a primeval forest in Slovakia (a large majority of them mentioned the Dobroč Primeval Forest).

slide51

3

2

4

1

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

1) European Diploma Award; 2) Green diplomacy (media coverage); 3) Open-air forestry museum + proxy trail opening; 4) World Heritage List inscription

slide52

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

Possible overexposure issue solved by a proxy trail

www.poznajachran.sk/mojchodnik

slide53

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

Forests / trees– a keylandscapecomponent

slide54

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

Inner environs of tourism business

offer

costumers

TB

targetgroups – costumers

marketing

Ø

Ø

c

ie

?

ov

é

demands

Ø

Ø

po

po

ž

ž

iadavky

iadavky

co-operation

competition

product

Ø

Ø

produkt

produkt

productquality

Ø

Ø

kvalita produktu

kvalita produktu

slide55

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

Destination

  • destinationdoesnothave to necessaryoffer „everything“ and to „everybody“
  • depends on thetargetgoup, what are itsrequiremetns

Co-operativemanagement

  • measure that synchronizes interestwithinthedestination
  • itshouldsecure a succes in thedestinationplace
  • thesystem ofco-operation and co-ordinationofstakeholedersthatensurestheco-ordinateuseoftheirprimaryandsecondaryoffer
slide56

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

- one of the important characteristics for the product to be wanted is its QUALITY

  • consumer is satisfied getting the value for the money
  • the result, whether consumer is satisfied or not depends on the difference between the reality and expectations:
  • reality > expectations = very satisfied
  • reality = expectations = satisfied, but considering it normal
  • reality < expectations = unsatisfied
  • expectations might be influenced by info gained before (own experience, experience of friend, relatives, information materials, web, newspapers, .....
  • but also by prices

~quality does not necessary be an equivalent of luxury ~

slide57

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

  • - theexperienceofthecostumercanbeexplainedusingthe model of „valuechain“
  • theworstserviceinfluencesthefinalsatisfactionofthecostumer
  • each ring ofthechainisimportant

Imagebefore

Info

before

Reserva-tion

Info

before

Info

before

Info

before

Contactafter and memo-reis

leaving

Infra-structure

Attra-ctions

Places to eat

Places to stay

slide58

employee

costumer

relation

satisfied or unsatisfie

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

Personalityoftheemployee

  • qualityoftheproduct (service) alwaysdepends on theemployee
  • psychologyoftheemployeecanbecharacterisedasfollows:
  • „my enterprise and mewant to serve ourguests“
slide59

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism

„Oh, very funny! We´d still like some, however it´s pronounced.“

slide60

“People search for places where they can rest:

rural country, seaside, mountains”

Marcus Aurelius – Ta eis heauton

(Thoughts to myself - Meditations)

Innovation in TourismBasedServices – RuralDevelopment in Tourism