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Internet Streaming Media UDP-based 轉送訊務的量測. 中央大學電算中心 楊素秋 Dec, 2002. 報告大綱. 1 .前言 2.相關研究 3.Prevalent UDP Application 4. Streaming Media 傳訊模式 5.Video Game 訊務特徵 6. Streaming Traffic 統計方法 7.熱門應用訊務分布 8. 結語. 1. 前言. Streaming Media Traffic over Internet 1970年代的 audio conference

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Internet Streaming Media UDP-based 轉送訊務的量測


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    1. Internet Streaming Media UDP-based轉送訊務的量測 中央大學電算中心 楊素秋 Dec, 2002

    2. 報告大綱 • 1.前言 • 2.相關研究 • 3.Prevalent UDP Application • 4.Streaming Media傳訊模式 • 5.Video Game 訊務特徵 • 6. Streaming Traffic統計方法 • 7.熱門應用訊務分布 • 8.結語

    3. 1.前言 • Streaming Media Traffic over Internet • 1970年代的audioconference • 1990年代初期的 Mbone Video Conference • variable delay Internet • Constant Bit Rate (CBR) traffic • 囿於網路頻寬限制致streaming 品質無法為用戶接受 • 隨著Audio/Video壓縮技術,網路頻寬的大量提昇 • Internet用戶使用free 播放程式 • 播放音樂、新聞及影片視音節目.

    4. 大量的Streaming media UDP訊務 • 容易造成網路資源分配不均,影響 TCP 應用延遲,產生traffic congestion • 實做承載訊務的量測 • 找出streaming media 的 transportation features • 統計/分析 streaming media訊務及其成長趨勢 • 分析熱門應用訊務分布 • Capacity planning • Packet Classification

    5. 2.相關研究 • Internet Traffic Measurement • LAN Traffic Measurement • gathered packet-based traffic logs through tcpdump. • Provide traffic measurement over one broadcast segment • Each traffic log recording the transportation information of each packet • TimeStamp • Src_ip.src_port > dst_ip.src_port • bytes • Transportation protocol

    6. 相關研究(cont.) • Barnet B. G. • measured traffic of an Ethernet segment • approximately 79% of the total Ethernet traffic in bytes was NFS traffic. • Kushida Takayaki • gathered traffic logs over FDDI backbone through tcpdump • The measurement result reveals that • about 98.2% of the traffic was TCP traffic.

    7. 相關研究(cont.) • WAN Traffic Measurement • Thompson Kevin et al. • Measured wide-area Internet traffic on anOC3 trunk within MCI ATM backbone using OC3MON • TCP is the dominant protocol on the link; about 95% of the bytes. • UDP is the second most dominant, with roughly 5% of the bytes,DNS dominates the total UDP traffic.

    8. 相關研究(cont.) • Measuring WAN traffic using NetFlow or SFlow transportation traffic log gathered from router • WAN router轉送Internet訊務 • router高效率暫存各介面轉送封包header • 加總各flow轉送訊務紀錄,週期性送往 Collect PC • Collecting PC 執行 flow-tools shareware,接收與儲存區網 netflow logs (per-10-min) • 提供region network 轉送訊務的追蹤與統計

    9. 相關研究(cont.) • Light-Weight Netflow traffic logs recording • flow identifier • source IP address, source port, • destination IP address, destination port • protocol identifier • packet count, byte count, • source及destination interface identifier.

    10. 相關研究(cont.) • Transit Traffic Log providing • 特定flow訊務特性的追蹤 • 統計Top-N user traffic (IP-based) • src_ip, dst_ip • source/ destination interface • protocol identifier • 監測轉送的TCP與 UDP 輸出/輸入訊務 • 分析熱門網路應用訊務分布 • source port, destination port

    11. 相關研究(cont.) • Art Mena et al. • Tcpdump 蒐集 RealAudio servers訊務 headers • 位於Broadcast.com 區域網段的5 部 RealAudio servers的訊務 headers • 統計 RealAudio servers的輸出與輸入media訊務特性 • 統計數據顯示: • 絕大部分的RealAudio Servers訊務為單向的大量傳送, • RealAudio 封包長度明顯大於一般UDP flows 封包.

    12. 相關研究(cont.) • Jacobus Merwe et al. • extracted and analyzed 4.5 million application level session-level log entries for two streaming services • over a period of 4 months. • The fields in each log entry include: • requesting IP address, • particulars of requested resource, • Real or Windows Media object • transport protocol • TCP or UDP • total data transmitted • session end-time, total session time, • status/error codes, etc

    13. 相關研究(cont.) • Characterize the workload by looking at a number of different measures of on-demand media servers • Protocol family • MMS 72%, Real 23% • Bandwidth • low 35%, High 65% • Transportation protocol • UDP 34% , TCP 29%, Http 37%

    14. 相關研究(cont.) • Schulzrinne H. et al. • Real Time Transportation Protocol • RTSP streams • Real Time Streaming Protocol(RTSP) • Session control • Remote control streaming options • play, fast forward, rewind, pause, restart • RTP/RTCP streams • Real-Time Transportation Protocol(RTP) • Accompanying streams • Media / QoS Packets

    15. 相關研究(cont.) • Conlklin G.J. et al. • Scalable and adaptive streaming delivery • Vendor strategies • MMS, Real commercial products • Client-Processing QoS Evaluation • Application-Level Multicasting

    16. 相關研究(cont.) • client 端處理QoS參數 • Accounting QoS • Estimated end-to-end variant delay & packet loss • According to the media packet headers • Feedback RTCP QoS參數 • 調整傳輸品質或速率 • Stop/redirect media streaming

    17. 相關研究(cont.) • Application-level multicasting • Geographically distributed servers • RTSP Agent蒐集members辨識資訊 & 傳訊參數(jitter, loss) • Redirect clients與較接近或負荷低的server建立傳輸連接 • 減輕massive media streaming對沿徑連網品質的影響.

    18. 相關研究(cont.) • Our work • 統計streaming media過境訊務 • 追蹤WAN router 轉送的media 訊務紀錄 • 依據streaming media傳輸特性,歸納傳輸特徵 • QuickTime, RealPlayer, MediaPlayer • 分析streaming media WAN 轉送訊務

    19. 3.Prevalent Application • TCP Application • Mail, Telnet, Ftp, WWW • Streaming Media, P2P file sharing • UDP Application • DNS, Tftp • Streaming Media, Game • VoIP/ SIP

    20. TCP Application • TCP Applications • Mail • SMTP(25 port), POP3(110 port) • Telnet • Telnet (23 port), ssh (22 port) • Ftp • Ftp-data (20 port), ftp (port 21) • Fast Ftp ** • WWW/Proxy • Httpd (80 port), sHttpd (443 port) • Proxy (3128 port, 8080 ports)

    21. Fast FTP traffic Logs ===================================================== 61.13.173.211.1229>140.135.101.74.2090 958575.000 684 1401.425 140.135.101.74.2090>61.13.173.211.1229 31192.000 764 40.827 61.13.173.211.1230>140.135.101.74.2095 1025917.000 733 1399.614 140.135.101.74.2104>61.13.173.211.1232 120.000 3 40.000 140.135.101.74.21>61.13.173.211.1193 917.000 10 91.700 140.135.101.74.2095>61.13.173.211.1230 31380.000 769 40.806 140.135.101.74.2102>61.13.173.211.1231 3124.000 74 42.216 61.13.173.211.1231>140.135.101.74.2102 116249.000 87 1336.195 61.13.173.211.1232>140.135.101.74.2104 144.000 3 48.000 61.13.173.211.1193>140.135.101.74.21 225.000 5 45.000 61.13.173.211.1233>140.135.101.74.2105 866487.000 619 1399.817

    22. TCP Application (cont.) • P2P applications • Napster (6677, 6688 port) • eDonkey (4661, 4662 port) • KaZaA (1214 port) • Streaming Media • MediaPlayer (1755 port) • RealPlayer (7070 port) • QuickTime Player (554 port) • Others

    23. UDP Application • DNS • server accepts client’s gethostbyip() or gethostbyname() calls on fixed 53/UDP service port. • Tftp • server accepts client connection requests for control stream on 69/UDP service port • generatesdata streams to client sites using dynamic UDP port piggybacked from client for transmitting data

    24. TFPT Traffic Logs … ======================================================= 140.138.143.42 . 1068 > 140.130.120.14.69 135 .000 3 43.000 140.138.143.42.1052>140.130.120.14.4902 423232.000 13226 32.000 140.130.120.14.4902>140.138.143.42.1052 6837536.000 12569 544.000 140.138.143.42.1053>140.130.120.14.1978 432160.000 13505 32.000 140.130.120.14.1978>140.138.143.42.1053 7098656.000 13049 544.000 … 140.138.143.42.1064>140.130.120.14.3613 428128.000 13379 32.000 140.130.120.14.3613>140.138.143.42.1064 7235744.000 13301 544.000 140.138.143.42.1065>140.130.120.14.4692 431168.000 13474 32.000 140.130.120.14.4692>140.138.143.42.1065 7148160.000 13140 544.000 140.138.143.42.1066>140.130.120.14.1833 445024.000 13907 32.000

    25. UDP Application (cont.) • VoIP (NeetMeeting) • server accepts request using fixed UDP service ports that ranges from 49601 to 49609. • SIP (Service Initiation Protocol) • IP multicast traffic • using class D IP addresses ranging from 224.1.0.0 through 239.255.255.255

    26. UDP Application (cont.) • Virus (Linux Slapper Worm) • adopts the same UDP service and client ports • UDP ports adopted by Slapper Worm including • 2002, 2001, 1978, 4156, 1812, 6257 • depends on the different virus versions.

    27. UDP Application (cont.) • Video Games • short lifetime synchronous flows. • Counter_Strike • uses 27015 UDP service ports • Quake_3 • uses the fixed 27960, 27961,27962 UDP service ports. • StarCraft • uses the fixed 6112 service port.

    28. UDP Application (cont.) • Streaming Media Traffic • Microsoft’s Media Player • 採用1024 ~65535 range的可用UDP service port傳送RTP 視音訊封包 • 大量視音訊流的同時存取 • 避開 firewall對承載media stream的過濾 • media過境訊務統計 • 無法依據fixed service port 辨識轉送訊務log • 加總media訊務量

    29. 4.Streaming Media傳訊模式 • Streaming Media轉送訊務的追蹤 • 追蹤streaming media flow • 歸納視音訊務傳輸特徵 • 統計WAN streaming media轉送訊務

    30. 實測網路 • TANet網路採階層的連線架構 • 桃園區域網路router界接 • TANet其他區網中心 • ISP 網路業者 • 區域連線學校 • 15個大學,30個高中職,數百個國中小學 • Gigabit Ethernet • T1/E1 (1.544 Mbps/ 2.048 Mbps)

    31. 骨幹Router及階層式連網架構

    32. Streaming轉送訊務的追蹤 • Step 1: 依據streaming media大packet size傳輸特性,擷取 packet size大於500 bytes/packetUDP flowlogs. • Step 2: 依據flowidentifiers (source IP/ source port, destination IP /destination port), 追蹤包含各 client IP 的轉送flows紀錄.

    33. Step 3: 歸納的 media傳訊特性 • RTSP stream • RealVideo選用7070/TCP service port • Quick Time 則選用554/TCP RTSP service port • MediaServer採用1755/TCP的RTSP service port • RTP/RTCP stream • RealVideo 與Quick Time • 採用 6970-7170 UDP client ports 建立RTP連接 • Send RTCP feedback in reverse direction • MediaServer • 採用1755/UDP RTCP service port • 選用 動態UDP ports RTP建立連接,1024-65535 ports

    34. 歸納MediaPlayerRTP 與RTCP傳輸streaming的規律性. • MS Media Server • RTSP agent以1755/TCP port 等待MediaPlayer (client) 連接 • server依據回應的client RTP/RTCP port pairs • 分別建立RTP傳輸與RTCP控制streams, • 遞送 real-time audio/video content,session control訊息

    35. 5. Video Game 訊務特性 • 絕大半的UDP flow 轉送紀錄承載DNS 及 Video Game synchronization 連接 • Short-life • Carrying small traffic amount • 相當高比率的 Video Gaming 訊務為承載小訊務量flows

    36. Game 訊務特性 (cont.) • 依據 src_port, dst_port為key 統計轉送flow count分布 • Top-10高連結頻次的UDP應用包括: • 使用 53 service port 的DNS, • 使用 27015, 27020 service port 的Counter_Strike • 使用 4665 port 的eDonkey_Msg, • Windows Netbios-ns 的137 service port

    37. 依據transportation port為key 統計video game flow 封包數分布 • 98% 的Counter_Strike flows傳輸的封包數目小於 10 packets, • 90% 的 Quake_3 flows • 73% 的StarCraft flows. • 傳送封包數大於 50 packets的大訊務量game flows 為特殊 port的 Game flows (Table 3) • 93.4 % 的27015 – 27005 CS flows, • 100% 的27960—27960 Quake 3 flows, • 95% 的6112-6112 StarCraft flows.

    38. UDP Port Flow_cnt 1 DNS (53) 1817451 2 CS_game (27015) 248018 3 EdonkeyMsg (4665) 20780 4 NTP (123) 14827 5 CS_game (27020) 14540 6 Netbios-ns (137) 10496 7 Snmp (161) 6711 8 Mplayer RTSP (1755) 6036 9 MSNmessenger (6257) 1792 10 Tftp (69) 1764 TYC連網的UDP訊務 flow count 分布

    39. pkts/flow CS flows Quake flows StarCraft flows 1 54672 (22.032 %) 492 (57.143 %) 6293 (43.091 %) 2 ~ 10 189312 (76.291%) 252 (29.268 %) 3834 (26.253 %) 11 ~ 20 81 (0.033 %) 30 (3.484 %) 647 (4.430 %) 21 ~ 30 13 (0.005 %) 11 (1.278 %) 317 (2.171 %) 31 ~ 40 154 (0.062 %) 1 (0.116 %) 255 (1.746 %) 41 ~ 50 65 (0.026 %) 1 (0.116 %) 167 (1.144 %) > 50 3846 (1.55%) 27005 -27015 93.4 % 74 (8.59%) 27960- 27960 100% 3091 (21.16%) 6112- 6112 94.6 % others 6.6 % others 0.0 % others 5.4 % TYC連網的Video Game flows分布

    40. 6.MediaPlayer Traffic統計演算法 • Step 1: Extract the transportation addresses of the high-bandwidth streams. • Parse the per-10-min UDP traffic logs • determine the likely RTP flow logs by checking mean packet size feature • extracting the likely transportation address of RTP client sites • destination IP addresses • destination UDP client ports

    41. Step 2: Estimate the transportation addresses of the likely RTCP streams • Estimated the client transportation addresses of likely RTCP streams • destination IP addresses • destination UDP client ports satisfy • RTCP_client_port = RTP_client_port - 1.

    42. Step 3: Extract parallel RTCP/RTP flow logs • Extract parallel RTP/RTCP streaming logs from the likely streaming log-files • determine the RTP/RTCP flow logs • checking the transportation address of RTSP streams • IP addresses obtained from step 1 and 2 • if there exist the relative RTSP session streams using 1755/TCP service ports..

    43. Step 4: Filter and accumulate media player traffic volume • Filter out the prevalent video game flow logs from the extracted RTCP and RTP flow logs, such as Counter_Strike and Quake. • Accumulate media player traffic for each time interval

    44. ** Streaming Media Flow logs 210.155.134.232.1755>140.135.155.99.1777 I 592.000 10 59.200 //RTSP 140.135.155.99.1778>210.155.134.232.1755 3604.000 80 45.050 //RTCP 210.155.134.232.3836>140.135.155.99.1779 484543.000 336 1442.092 //RTP ** Fast Streaming Media Flow logs 211.72.248.106.1755>140.138.243.167.1098 1192.000 13 91.692 // RTSP 140.138.243.167.1110>211.72.248.106.1755 1524.000 34 44.824 //RTCP 211.72.248.106.4344>140.138.243.167.1111 943500.000 629 1500.000 //RTP 211.72.248.106.2857>140.138.243.167.1121 357802.000 239 1497.079 //RTP 211.72.248.106.4498>140.138.243.167.1131 58705.000 59 995.000 //RTP 211.72.248.106.3773>140.138.243.167.1211 38246.000 26 1471.000 //RTP 211.72.248.106.2963>140.138.243.167.1140 671246.000 448 1498.317 //RTP

    45. TANet桃園區網MediaPlayer訊務分布

    46. MediaPlayer traffic volume in byte • our measurement network ( Nov in 2002) • streaming media訊務低峰 • 清晨時段(4:00–8:00). • streaming media訊務高峰 • 午休 ~ 凌晨時段