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Colonialism in Nigeria. By: Olivia Brasacchio. Reasons behind Colonization in Nigeria. Many Europeans saw Nigeria as an economic gold mine because of the raw materials that could be harnessed. Nigeria was rich in: Cola Rubber Gold Tin

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Colonialism in Nigeria

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colonialism in nigeria

Colonialismin Nigeria

By: Olivia Brasacchio

reasons behind colonization in nigeria
Reasons behind Colonization in Nigeria
  • Many Europeans saw Nigeria as an economic gold mine because of the raw materials that could be harnessed.
  • Nigeria was rich in:
  • Cola
  • Rubber
  • Gold
  • Tin
  • Nigerian people could be traded as slaves to foreign countries.
  • The idea of spreading religious beliefs and ideas
the beginning of colonialism
The beginning of colonialism
  • In the 1900’s Great Britain established a charter for total control over northern Nigeria.
  • In 1914 the two regions were amalgamated and the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria was established.
  • Britain ruled through existing political institutions rather than establishing new ones. New African officials were set up; in most cases they were not accepted by the mass of the people.
  • Important decisions were made by the British governor, and the African rulers later lost most of their traditional authority. Occasionally people protest against this.
  • By the 2nd part of the 19th century all over Nigeria belong to Britain.
tribes affected by colonialism
Tribes affected by colonialism
  • More than 250 tribes resided in Nigeria at the time of colonization and were ultimately all affected in one way or another.
  • Main tribes affected by colonization:

Borno- Northeastern tribe

Oyo- Southwestern tribe

Benin- Southern tribe

Igbo- Eastern tribe

important changes
Important changes
  • Under the British, railroads and roads were built.
  • The production of cash crops other than yams, such as palm nuts and kernels, cocoa, cotton, and peanuts, was encouraged.
  • The country became more urbanized. Lagos, Ibadan, Kano, Onitsha, and other cities grew in size and importance.
  • Self-help groups were organized on ethnic lines in the cities to support each other and work out problems with the colonists. A small Western-educated elite developed in Lagos and a few other southern cities
  • Western culture became intertwined with tribal culture.
positive effects on tribes
Positive effects on tribes
  • The presence of missionaries and other official leaders allowed infrastructure to contribute the success the tribes had already made be built such as:
  • Churches
  • Stores
  • Housing opportunites
  • Health facilities were established which increased the life quality of people in villages and helped the ill.
  • Missionaries set up schools and other methods for education tribal children.
negative effects on tribes
Negative effects on tribes
  • Nigeria’s dual purpose became to convert the natives and to discover natural resources which could then be traded as a substitute for slaves.
  • Essentially Nigeria was colonized using her own resources.

“The general tendency by them was to condemn African things in toto and to paint the picture of a dark continent. The missionaries had no respect for the peoples' way of life, their religion or culture. "On my way, I found numbers of idols which I threw into the fire. The owner of these idols....seemed very annoyed. To calm him down by humiliating him, I let him know that if he persisted in anger, I should see that he himself is burnt with his idols".

  • The natives were angered that they had become foreigners in their own country.
positive effects of colonialism
Positive effects of colonialism
  • A new federal government was established.
  • Three major political parties emerged—the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons, the Northern People's Congress (NPC), and the Federal Territory of Lagos, came into force in 1954. In 1956 the Eastern and Western regions became internally self-governing, and the Northern region achieved this status in 1959.
  • A new constitution, providing for elected representation on a regional basis was instituted in 1951.
  • Christianity was introduced and gave people who were considered outcasts in Tribal society a new chance at feeling like they belonged somewhere.
  • Health facilities helped control and treat infectious diseases prominent in Nigeria more effectively.
negative effects of colonialism
Negative effects of colonialism
  • Slave trade was introduced into society creating regional conflict
  • British caused tribes to become rivals and respect for others not within their social community/ village became non-existent no matter how many titles or famous someone was.
  • Christian beliefs and European ideology was forced onto the tribals
  • Older ways of living were replaced with westernized methods.
  • The humanitarian touch missionaries provided disguised their motives of modernizing and converting tribal people while their primary goal was to create a peaceful and beneficent civilization.
recovering from colonialism
Recovering from colonialism
  • Nigeria attained independence on Oct. 1, 1960.
  • In July, 1966, a group led by Hausa army officers ousted Ironsi (who was killed) and placed Lt. Col. Yakubu Gowon at the head of a new military regime. In Sept., 1966, many Igbo living in the north were massacred.
  • The early 1970s were marked by reconstruction in areas that were formerly part of Biafra, by the gradual reintegration of the Igbo into national life, and by a slow return to civilian rule.
  • Nigeria joined the United Nations on October 7, 1960 as the 99th member.
  • Although tribal people never fully went back to how they lived before colonialism, western ways of life still exist today.
work cited
Work cited