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Colonialism. Political, social, economic, cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended period of time. 2 MAJOR PHASES OF EUROPEAN COLONIALISM. PHASE 1: 1490s—1820s Spain & Portugal colonized Central, South, and North America

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colonialism
Colonialism

Political, social, economic, cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended period of time

2 major phases of european colonialism
2 MAJOR PHASES OF EUROPEAN COLONIALISM

PHASE 1: 1490s—1820s

  • Spain & Portugal colonized Central, South, and North America
  • Britain colonized North America, India, Australia (1788), parts of the Caribbean
  • Dutch colonized South Africa, Singapore
  • France colonized Canada, parts of the Caribbean
  • 1800s: Independence Movements began
trans atlantic slave trade 1600 1800
TRANS-ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE: 1600—1800
  • Europeans captured West African slaves (c. 12 million total) (in exchange for guns, alcohol, tobacco, etc.)
  • Shipped slaves to the Americas and Caribbean Islands to work on plantations (sugar, cotton, tobacco, coffee)
  • Beginning of the Global Plantation Economy
2 major phases of european colonialism4
2 MAJOR PHASES OF EUROPEAN COLONIALISM

PHASE 2: 1850s—1950s

  • Western Europe colonized Africa, the rest of Asia, and the Pacific Islands
  • 1914: Britain and French Empires were at their height; EU Empires controlled 85% of world!
  • 1950s: Independence Movements started to succeed
africa
AFRICA

http://www.ilike2learn.com/ilike2learn/africa.html

africa6
AFRICA
  • CONTINENT with regions (North, South, East, West)
  • 1776-1870: Colonized by Europe and US during last phase of colonialism
  • 1807: Britain abolished slave trade
  • 1834: Britain abolished slavery & established “legitimate trade” in cashcrops, turning subsistence economies into “mono crop” economies
africa7
AFRICA
  • 1884: “Scramble for Africa” at the Berlin Conference on West Africa
  • 1884-1912: 5 EU nations—Germany, Italy, Portugal, France, Britain ( + Spain, Belgium) sliced Africa up like a pie
  • Most African nations fought for and won independence from their colonizers in the mid-1900s
  • 1960: Niger became independent from France
niger9
NIGER
  • Straddles the Sahara & Sahel Deserts
  • Fragile environment of semi-arid brush
  • Farming: shifting cultivation
  • Pre-colonial Economy: trans-Saharan trade in livestock, agricultural products
  • Colonial Economy: cowpea trade (cash crop)
  • Vulnerable to drought & unreliable global commodity markets
niger10
NIGER
  • Size: about twice size of TX, 1 of hottest countries in the world
  • Capital: Niamey
  • 2005 population estimate = 11.6 million
  • Ethnic Groups: Hausa 56%, Djerma 22%, Fula 8.5%, Tuareg 8%, Beri Beri (Kanouri) 4.3%, Arab, Toubou, & Gourmantche 1.2%, about 1,200 French expatriates
  • Life Expectancy = 42 years
  • Resources: gold, uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, cassava, and rice
niger economy
NIGER ECONOMY
  • Exports: uranium ore, livestock products, cowpeas, onions
  • Imports: consumer goods, machinery, vehicles and parts, gasoline, cereal
  • 2000: Qualified for enhanced debt relief under the International Monetary Fund (IMF) program for Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC)
  • Reduces Niger's annual debt: frees funds for basic health care, primary education, HIV/AIDS prevention, rural infrastructure, and other programs
  • Half Niger’s budget: from foreign donor resources
  • Future growth: may be sustained by exploitation of oil, gold, coal, and other mineral resources
niger politics
NIGER POLITICS
  • 1993: held first free and open elections
  • 1996 & 1999: military coups led by Tuaregs
  • 1999: National Reconciliation Council facilitated transition to civilian rule
  • Since 1999: President of the Republic, Mamadou Tandja
niger religion
NIGER RELIGION

80%: Muslim

20%: Christian & indigenous beliefs

Fusion of the Worlds: How do the Songhay turn to their indigenous worldview and practices in order to “talk back to” the impending crises of drought and living in poverty?