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Colonialism . Colonialism. Colonial Conquests: the new World. 1492 Columbus’ discovery 1493 Pope Alexander VI divides New World between Spain and Portugal—largely ignored Conquest, forced labor, and disease—10-100 million dead 1550 Debate at Valladolid—do Indians have souls?.

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colonial conquests the new world
Colonial Conquests: the new World
  • 1492 Columbus’ discovery
  • 1493 Pope Alexander VI divides New World between Spain and Portugal—largely ignored
  • Conquest, forced labor, and disease—10-100 million dead
  • 1550 Debate at Valladolid—do Indians have souls?
latin american colonial independence
Latin American Colonial Independence
  • Spurred by American example, independence movements sweep much of Latin America from 1810-1820
colonialism in asia india
Colonialism in Asia: India
  • Beginning 1490s, colonized by many European powers
  • By 1750s, Britain predominant European power, ruling by means of the East India Company
negligent famine
Negligent famine
  • In 1750s and then 1870s incompetence by British led to famines killing millions
attempting to overthrow the british raj
Attempting to Overthrow the British Raj
  • 1857 “Sepoy Rebellion” “first war of Independence” was crushed
gandhi and the congress party
Gandhi and the Congress Party
  • 1920 Gandhi calls for boycott of British goods, refuse to pay taxes, peaceful protest
  • Calls it off when crowd kills police—through fasting
  • 1930 Gandhi leads “salt march”
  • Growing rift between Congress and Muslim League—advocate a split
war and independence
War and Independence
  • Britain (without consultation) enters India in WWII, as they had WWI
  • Some leaders of Congress Party side with Germany and Japan
  • 1947 amid continuing protests, Britain agrees to independence—secular India, Muslim Pakistan
  • In first 2 years of independence, over 1 million die in communal violence
  • Over 10 million flee
colonialism and china
Colonialism and China
  • From 1600s to 1800s Chinese Emperors limited Western trade and contact to two ports
  • Increasingly weak dynasty tried to prohibit importation of opium
  • 1830s-1850s China lost two “Opium Wars”
  • Forced to give up Hong Kong, allow missionaries, and all trade
19 th century humiliation of china
19th century humiliation of China
  • European powers and Japan carved up China into “spheres of influence” and treaty ports
reaction boxer rebellions of 1900
Reaction: “Boxer Rebellions” of 1900
  • Members of a Chinese nationalist society attacked foreigners, missionaries, and Chinese Christians
  • Eight nation alliance sends 50,000 troops to put down rebellion
nationalist revolution of 1912
Nationalist Revolution of 1912
  • Sun Yat-Sen overthrows discredited Ching dynasty, declares a republic, and attempts to reduce foreign influence
chinese imperialism tibet
Chinese “Imperialism”: Tibet
  • From 17th Century until 1959, Tibet governed by “incarnations” of the Dalai Lama
  • PRC invaded in 1949, taking control in 1959—”liberating” a backwards society—”Sinification”
  • 14th Dalai Lama has ceded political power to newly democratic government also in exile in India
race for africa
Race for Africa
  • Beginning in 1870s, competitive territorial claims across Africa
  • 1884-5 Berlin conference
example 1 rwanda
Example 1: Rwanda
  • 1890s Rwanda colonized by Germans
  • After WWI, goes to Belgians, under League of Nations mandate
  • Belgians favor Tutsi minority
  • 1962 becomes independent—Hutu dominated
  • 1990s increased fighting between Hutu and Tutsi
  • 1994 Hutu president killed, genocide begins
example 2 democratic republic of congo
Example #2: Democratic Republic of Congo
  • 1870s—claimed as the personal property of King Leopold II of Belgium
  • 1908 Embarrassed by Leopold’s brutality, Belgian parliament purchases Congo
recent history of the congo
Recent history of the Congo
  • 1960 Patrice Lumumba elected prime minister, killed with assistance from CIA
  • US and Belgium install Mobutu
  • 1990s Congo becomes scene of Africa’s “world wars”
  • 2006 Internationally sponsored elections
  • Issue of “conflict diamonds and conflict gold”
example 3 liberia
Example #3—Liberia
  • 1820s American association sends free blacks back to Africa, formed Republic
  • 1980s military coup overthrew republic--dictator assisted CIA
  • 1997s Charles Taylor elected—being tried now for crimes against humanity
  • 2005 first woman in Africa elected head of govt
the presidency of ellen johnson sirleaf
The Presidency of Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf
example 4 rhodesia zimbabwe
Example #4 Rhodesia/Zimbabwe
  • Cecil Rhodes: "I contend that we (the British) are the finest race in the world; and that the more of the world we inhabit, the better it is for the human race".
  • 1890s natives expropriated and white rule established under Rhodes’ BSAC
  • 1965 Britain refused to grant independence w/o majority rule—white Rhodesian’s declared themselves independent
  • 1980 after 10 years of fighting, Mugabe elected president in internationally supervised elections
mugabe s zimbabwe
Mugabe’s Zimbabwe
  • One party rule
  • White farmers’ lands redistributed
  • Economic free-fall
post colonial world
Post colonial world
  • 1945--roughly 50 countries
  • now roughly 200