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. Smart Cities andtheAgeing Population Sustainable smart cities: from vision to reality 13 October 2014. ITU, Geneva Knud Erik Skouby, CMI/ Aalborg University-Cph
Presentation based on work within WWRF (Wireless World Research Forum) WGA With Per Lynggaard, Assistant Professor, CMI IwonaWindekilde, Associate Professor, CMI Anri Kivimäki, Program Manager, International Business LottaHaukipuro, PhD Fellow Management and International Business, Oulu Business School, University of Oulu, Finland
Introduction • Due to a growing number of elderly people, it is a necessity to create cities that are aware of the special needs of all their citizens including the needs of aging populations. • This paper shows that by combining smart homes with smart cities, we are able to provide an ICT infrastructure that exploits the entangled connections between the ambient assisted living, the smart homes, and the smart cities
THE AGEING SOCIETY Elderly people 65+ represent a growing share of the world population 25 percent of all Europeans will be over 60 by 2030 Globally, 40 per cent of older persons aged 60 +live independently Population aging presents social, economic and political challenges for societies Figure 1: Number of people aged 60 or over: Source: World, developed and developing countries, 1950-2050, UDESA 2012 Distribution of population aged 60 years or over by broad age group, Source: World Population Ageing, Profiles of Ageing, 1950-2050 , UNDESA, 2011
The needs of elderly persons for continued well-being Assisted living environments can help an ageing population to remain active and independent for longer period by taking into consideration their individual needs Figure. A multi-factor model displaying the needs of elderly persons for continued well-being Source: I. Iakovidis, “ICT for Health and Ageing,” European Commission, 2013. Smart cities need to address elderly people needs across such as housing, social participations health care, and community support services, leisure, and culture, in order to make smart city environment more elderly friendly.
Idea - Smart Cities and Smart Homes • A smart city concept must include the smart homes to support the citizens entangled society lifestyle. • To make the smart city the engine of transformation a modern ICT based infrastructure, which integrates the smart homes into a smart city, is needed
Internet of Things (IoT) • The connected IoT’s is the next big step in the evolution of the Internet. • A combination of Internet , wireless communication, and embedded wireless sensors transform everyday objects into intelligent and context-aware IoTs.
Smart homes • Smart homes have their roots in the intelligent buildings and the home automation areas. • They offer: • Remote and timer control of systems and embedded devices. • The smart homes add context sensing and autonomous behaviour.
IoTs in smart homes • Most user actions are performed in a limited context • User actions are processed locally by IoTs that are positioned close to the sensors and actuators With AI IoTs are able to learn and predict user actions
AI in smart homes • Future smart homes implement context-aware services • Context-aware services are added to smart homes using AI-based systems. • The AI systems learn from users’ behaviors with a high degree of probability and are able to perform the learned actions autonomously. • Smart home AI systems must be able to interface with hundreds or even thousands of sensors.
Clouds of Things (CoT) • CoT is a pool of resources and calculation capabilities that offers IoT based services through the Internet
Emerging smart home services Cloud computing AAL Sensors enhance home’s security Washer and dryer controlled by load volume, dirt level, time-of-day energy rates Service Telemedicine
The suggested concept • The smart homes are equipped with an advanced AI system that organizes and controls the smart home services. • It performs processing of events from the IoT devices with limited processing capability. • The smart city ICT based infrastructure combines the smart home AI systems with the CoT services. • I.e. the smart homes are linked into the smart city infrastructure.
The suggested concept • Layer 1(the bottom layer): Contains a collection of IoT’s directly interacting with the users. • Layer 2: Contextual information from the IoTs collected in the smart home AI learns and predicts the user’s behaviour and preferences . • Layer 3: The CoT layer combines the AI systems from the individual smart homes • Layer 4: A smart city ICT-based infrastructure is created
Change Influence on • Energy & transport • Water, and environmental monitoring • Government, administration, and public safety service • Healthcare • Social interaction
A new eco-system • Integrating the smart homes into the smart cities, coordinate their activities, collect big data, and offers composite complex services to the community, as well as to the individual smart home user. • The concept offers change and new service possibilities. • interconnecting Internet of Things in the individual smart homes in an intelligent way by deploying AI. • It scales well and offers easily adaptation to new technology and services such as smart grids; ITS.. • The smart city Cloud of Things offers the possibility to centralizing distributed data into a few big-data storages by deploying new combined smart home and smart city services.
Conclusions • The infrastructure offers a framework for innovation, a framework for citizen involvements, and a framework for new service possibilities • Major challenges • Communication: reliability, latency.. 5 G solutions • M2M incl management; interoperability and connectivity – 5G solutions? • CoT incl security, privacy, trust – 5G solutions?