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Chapter 1

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  1. Chapter 1 Getting Started with Win32/64

  2. Chapter 1 OBJECTIVES • Upon completion of this Chapter, you will be able to: • Describe the Windows API • Its role in Windows 2000, XP, 2003 (“NT5”) • And obsolete systems (9X, NT4) • Windows style and programming conventions • Develop Windows applications using Microsoft Visual C++ • Develop and run a simple application • Use the basic debugger features • Use the online help to obtain additional information • Win64 migration and portability issues

  3. OVERVIEW (1 of 2) • Windows 2000, XP, 2003 (“NT5”) as Operating Systems • Their roles as operating systems • The Windows API • Win64 migration and portability • Differences • Architecture

  4. OVERVIEW (2 of 2) • Getting Started with Windows • Naming conventions • Programming conventions • Style • Sample program • Lab: Use Visual C++ to build and run a sample application

  5. WINDOWS NT FAMILY AS OPERATING SYSTEMS • Windows 32-bit operating systems have all the features required for desktop, departmental, and enterprise computing • 64-bit systems are on the way • Essential features include: • Memory: large, flat, virtual memory address space • File systems, console, and other I/O • Multitasking: processes and threads • Communication and synchronization • Single system and networked • Security

  6. THE Windows API • Windows is the 32-bit API used by: • Windows 9X (95, 98, Me) • Windows NT • Windows CE (palmtops, embedded systems, etc.) • Win64 is very similar at the source level • Supported on Windows 2003 and Itanium processor family • Windows statements nearly always apply to Win64 • There are several major subdivisions, including: • Windows Management • Graphics Device Interface (GDI) • System Services • Multimedia • Remote Procedure Calls

  7. SYSTEM SERVICES • This course covers the System Services • The brains of Windows • System Services enable everything else • The Course Chapters cover the essential system service • Repeat: Topics NOT covered • Device Drivers • OS internals • Graphical User Interface (GUI) programming • COM, DCOM, MFC, .net • Development environments – learn as you go

  8. WINDOWS NT 5 (1 of 2) • All platforms use the Windows API, BUT there are differences: • Windows NT4 (and above) has full NSA “Orange Book” C2 security features. • “NT” means NT 4.0 and above (including all NT5) • Windows 9X only runs on Intel x86 architecture • Only NTsupports SMP • Windows 2003 also runs on Itanium, . . . • Windows 2003 for Win64 migration • Note: Windows CE also supports Windows on several processor architectures

  9. WINDOWS NT5 (2 of 2) • Windows NT uses UNICODE international character set throughout • Windows 9X limits asynchronous I/O to serial devices • Windows NT has a fully protected kernel • Windows NT supports the NTFS, a robust file system • Windows 9X and CE will not support as many resources • Open files, processes, etc. • Many Windows 9X Windows functions have restricted implementations In general, Windows programs are portable between platforms at both the source and, mostly, binary level

  10. THE WINDOWS NT ARCHITECTURE • Windows is the dominant environment running on the NT (all versions) executive • OS/2 and POSIX compatility modes are rarely used • Historical interest only

  11. OS/2Program WindowsProgram POSIXProgram Applications OS/2 Subsystem Windows Subsystem POSIX Subsystem Protected Subsystems NTExecutive Systems Services Process Manager I/O Manager Virtual Memory Manager KERNEL HAL: Hardware Abstraction HARDWARE

  12. GETTING STARTED:MINIMUM SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS • System running Windows NT5 • Other versions will run most, but not all, examples • Intel Pentium CPU (or equivalent: AMD, 486, ...) • Alternative: Itanium • Memory and free disk space • As required by your development system • C compiler and development system • Microsoft Visual C++ Version 6.0 (or higher) • .net • These requirements are easy to meet with current system prices and common configurations

  13. GETTING STARTED:Windows PRINCIPLES (1 OF 2) • Nearly every resource is an “object” identified and referenced by a “handle” of type HANDLE • Kernel objects must be manipulated by WindowsAPIs • HANDLE datatype objects include: • files pipes • processes memory mapping • threads events, mutexes, semaphores • Windows is rich and flexible • Many functions perform the same or similar operations • Each function has numerous parameters and flags

  14. GETTING STARTED:Windows PRINCIPLES (2 OF 2) • Windows thread is the basic unit of execution, rather than a process • A process can contain one or more threads • Each process has its own code and data address space • Threads share the process address space • Threads are “lightweight” and more efficient than processes • Used for servers, asynchronous I/O, ...

  15. Windows NAMING CONVENTIONS • Long and descriptive • WaitForSingleObjectWaitForMultipleObjects • Predefined descriptive data types in upper case • BOOL, DWORD, LPDWORD, ... • Predefined types avoid the * operator and make distinctions: • LPTSTR (defined as TCHAR *) and • LPCTSTR (defined as const TCHAR *) • Variable names in API descriptions use “Hungarian” notation - we’ll avoid this convention • lpFileName — long pointer [to a zero terminated string]

  16. Windows PROGRAMMING CONVENTIONS • <windows.h> is always included • All objects identified by variables of type HANDLE • CloseHandle function applies to (nearly) all objects • Symbolic constants and flags which explain their meaning • INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE and GENERIC_READ • ReadFile, WriteFile, and many other Windows functions return Boolean values • System error codes obtained through GetLastError () • C library always available • But you cannot fully exploit Windows with it

  17. EXAMPLE: Windows FILE COPY (1 of 3) • /* Basic cp file copy program */ • /* cp file1 file2: Copy file1 to file2 */ • #include <windows.h> /* Always required for Windows */ • #include <stdio.h> • #define BUF_SIZE 256 /* Increase for faster copy */ • int main (int argc, LPTSTR argv []) • { • HANDLE hIn, hOut; /* Input and output handles */ • DWORD nIn, nOut; /* Number bytes transferred */ • CHAR Buffer [BUF_SIZE]; • if (argc != 3) { • printf ("Usage: cp file1 file2\n"); • return 1; • }

  18. EXAMPLE: Windows FILE COPY (2 of 3) • /* Create handles for reading and writing. Many */ • /* default values are used */ • hIn = CreateFile (argv [1], GENERIC_READ, 0, NULL, • OPEN_EXISTING, FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL, NULL); • if (hIn == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE) { • printf ("Cannot open input file\n"); • return 2; • } • hOut = CreateFile (argv [2], GENERIC_WRITE, 0, NULL, • CREATE_ALWAYS, FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL, NULL); • if (hOut == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE) { • printf ("Cannot open output file\n"); • return 3; • }

  19. EXAMPLE: Windows FILE COPY (3 of 3) • /* Input and output file handles are open. */ • /* Copy file. Note end-of-file detection */ • while (ReadFile (hIn, Buffer, BUF_SIZE, • &nIn, NULL) && nIn > 0) • WriteFile (hOut, Buffer, nIn, &nOut, NULL); • /* Deallocate resources, such as open handles */ • CloseHandle (hIn); CloseHandle (hOut); • return 0; • }

  20. Getting Ready for Win64 • Objectives: • Win32 binaries run in 64-bit environment • Source code can be recompiled for 64-bit environment • Cautions: • Do not assume integers and pointers are same length • Win64 introduces 64-bit pointers • New data types include • DWORD32, DWORD64 • POINTER_32, POINTER_64 • LONG32, LONG64

  21. LAB 1–A (1 of 2) • Use the VC++ environment • Build, run, and test the Windows file copy program, cpW • Extend the program so that it prints the value of the error message in case of any failure • Obtained from GetLastError() • Don’t forget to test this error reporting capability • The source code is in Chapter1\cpw.c

  22. LAB 1–A (2 of 2) • The instructor will show you how to: • Create a console application under Microsoft Visual C++ • Execute the application • Use Visual C++ to edit and rebuild the program • Use the Visual C++ debugger • Use the online help • Note: http://world.std.com/~jmhart/wined3.htm contains many explanatory comments, examples, diagrams, and book errata