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InGas 30 months meeting / Ecocat. INGAS 30 months meeting Oulu - Finland 25 - 26 May 2011. AVL, DAI, Delphi, Ecocat, ICSC-PAS, ICVT, Katcon, PoliMi. B2: Aftertreatment for Passenger Car CNG Engine. WPB2.1 Requirements / Boundary Conditions. WPB2.2 Advanced Catalyst Development. WPB2.3

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ingas 30 months meeting ecocat
InGas 30 months meeting / Ecocat

INGAS 30 months meeting

Oulu - Finland

25 - 26 May 2011

AVL, DAI, Delphi, Ecocat, ICSC-PAS, ICVT, Katcon, PoliMi

slide2

B2: Aftertreatment for Passenger Car CNG Engine

WPB2.1

Requirements /

Boundary Conditions

WPB2.2

Advanced Catalyst

Development

WPB2.3

Exhaust Heating/

Catalyst Concepts

WPB2.4

Engine Testing/

EAT System Management

WPB2.5

EAT System

Integration/Optimiz.

Boundary conditions

Reference catalyst

Catalyst samples

Coated heat exchanger

CH4/NOx operation strategy

EAT operation strategy 1

EAT operation strategy 2

Fuel

Requirements/

specifications

Exhaust

boundaries

Engine/injection system

Control management

Engine for EAT

implementation

Engine with EAT for

final validation

A1 – A2 – A3

B0

A2

spb2 technologies and approach
SPB2: Technologies and Approach
  • Development of specific active methane oxidation catalysts (WPB2.2)
    • Catalyst preparation (precious metal and metal oxide technologies)
    • Test of powdered catalysts, structured catalysts, substrates (metal and ceramics)
    • Characterization studies
  • Development of a dedicated thermal management system (WPB2.3)
    • Design and set-up of an integrated exhaust gas heating device (catalytic coated HEX)
    • Modelling of heating device and catalytic combustion, simulation of behaviour
    • Manufacturing, testing and optimisation of HEX
  • Development of operation strategies on engine test bench (WPB2.4)
    • Identification of engine measures for faster light-off
    • Testing of catalyst materials and HEX
    • Optimization of operation strategies for improved CH4-Conversion
  • Demonstration of an exhaust gas aftertreatment system for Euro 6 (WPB2.5)
    • Set-up of CNG engine with the exhaust aftertreatment system (transient bench)
    • Optimization of the catalyst heating including cold-start
    • Demonstration of the system performance (Euro 6 legislation) in NEDC on engine test bench
    • Validation of the catalyst activity in a vehicle configuration for Euro 6 compliance (SPA2)
spb2 technologies and approach1
SPB2: Technologies and Approach
  • Development of specific active methane oxidation catalysts (WPB2.2)
    • Catalyst preparation (precious metal and metal oxide technologies)
    • Test of powdered catalysts, structured catalysts, substrates (metal and ceramics)
    • Characterization studies
  • Development of a dedicated thermal management system (WPB2.3)
    • Design and set-up of an integrated exhaust gas heating device (catalytic coated HEX)
    • Modelling of heating device and catalytic combustion, simulation of behaviour
    • Manufacturing, testing and optimisation of HEX
  • Development of operation strategies on engine test bench (WPB2.4)
    • Identification of engine measures for faster light-off
    • Testing of catalyst materials and HEX
    • Optimization of operation strategies for improved CH4-Conversion
  • Demonstration of an exhaust gas aftertreatment system for Euro 6 (WPB2.5)
    • Set-up of CNG engine with the exhaust aftertreatment system (transient bench)
    • Optimization of the catalyst heating including cold-start
    • Demonstration of the system performance (Euro 6 legislation) in NEDC on engine test bench
    • Validation of the catalyst activity in a vehicle configuration for Euro 6 compliance (SPA2)
slide5

InGas: SPB2/WPB2.2

6%-Pd/CeO2-Al2O3 material/powder made in Ecocat

(vs. made by POLIMI)

At the first stage 100 g ready powder ( 6% Pd) was made

according to the recipe achieved from POLIMI

Pd % in ready powder: 6,1 wt-% for POLIMI and

6,15 wt-% for Ecocat made powder

slide6

InGas: SPB2/WPB2.2

Catalyst sample made from the Ecocat 6%-Pd/CeO2-Al2O3 material/powder

  • Good coating abilities
  • found on the metal surface
  • Combarable adhesion
  • compared to the reference

6%-Pd/CeO2-Al2O3

+ Binder

coated on the

metal foil

Rolled sample

for the tests

ingas spb2 wpb2 2
InGas: SPB2/WPB2.2

Light off tests at lean

(HT-700°C/20h aged)

  • Quite similar light off curves for CO
  • for all the samples after HT-ageing
  • After HT-ageing, THC light off for the
  • new samples is clearly better
ingas spb2 wpb2 21
InGas: SPB2/WPB2.2

Light off tests at λ=1

(LS-1030°C/20h aged)

  • At λ=1 tests as LS-aged the new samples
  • show better light off performance,
  • especially for THC
slide9

InGas: SPB2/WPB2.2

Lambda tests at λ=1

(LS-1030°C/20h aged)

  • After LS-ageing at λ=1 tests the new
  • samples has better lambda for THC; for
  • CO and NOx the window is very similar
slide10

InGas: SPB2/WPB2.2

  • Conclusions for the tests made for the 6%-Pd/CeO2-Al2O3 based samples:
  • At lean conditions the new samples has better light off peformance compared

to the reference, especially for THC, both as fresh and after ageing

  • At stoichiometric conditions after ageing the new samples has little better

light off performance as well as better lambda window for THC; as fresh

the sample made by Ecocat powder seems to have little better performance

  • The POLIMI powder was succesfully prepared by Ecocat
  • The catalyst based on the 6 wt-% containing Pd-CeO2-Al2O3 powder

could be a good candidate for a methane catalyst in In-Gas project

  • Scale up to 1 kg of the powder is in progress in order to make proto scale
  • samples for the engine tests
spb2 technologies and approach2
SPB2: Technologies and Approach
  • Development of specific active methane oxidation catalysts (WPB2.2)
    • Catalyst preparation (precious metal and metal oxide technologies)
    • Test of powdered catalysts, structured catalysts, substrates (metal and ceramics)
    • Characterization studies
  • Development of a dedicated thermal management system (WPB2.3)
    • Design and set-up of an integrated exhaust gas heating device (catalytic coated HEX)
    • Modelling of heating device and catalytic combustion, simulation of behaviour
    • Manufacturing, testing and optimisation of HEX
  • Development of operation strategies on engine test bench (WPB2.4)
    • Identification of engine measures for faster light-off
    • Testing of catalyst materials and HEX
    • Optimization of operation strategies for improved CH4-Conversion
  • Demonstration of an exhaust gas aftertreatment system for Euro 6 (WPB2.5)
    • Set-up of CNG engine with the exhaust aftertreatment system (transient bench)
    • Optimization of the catalyst heating including cold-start
    • Demonstration of the system performance (Euro 6 legislation) in NEDC on engine test bench
    • Validation of the catalyst activity in a vehicle configuration for Euro 6 compliance (SPA2)
slide12

Development work

    • TB2.3.2: Optimization of cold start operation strategies / design
  • Influence of certain (design) parameters on accumulated amount of CH4

Ltot

Material thickness of corrugated spacer structures

Lc

  • 2 degrees of freedom for optimizer:
  • Lc
  • Flap switch time

Varied parameters

  • Varied parameters (const. in each optimization run:
  • sspacer
  • Ltot

Optimized parameters

12/25

slide13

Design modifications

Fins

  • Design modifications from Gen 1 to gen 2:
    • Increase number of fins– by decreasing the fin pitch from 1.8mm to 0.8mm
    • Reduce the material thickness – to reduce the thermal inertia
  • Risk assessment?
    • High risk of erosion of the material during the brazing – Gas leakage
      • A new time/temperature profile of the brazing and the quantity of the brazing filler metal have been modified.
slide14

MK2 hex generation

  • Bench-scale prototype:
  • Lab-scale prototype (already at USTUTT):

Exhaust out

Flap 1

Flap 3

Flap 2

Exhaust in

Flap 2

  • Increase of cross sectional surface (0.0025 m2 0.0042 m2 (only lab-scale)

Flap 3

TWC coating

  • High cell density (30 fpi≈ 250 cpsi) for complete hex, coating length 10 cm

Flap 4 (optional, for complete decoupling of hex)

  • Reduction of spacer structure wall thickness (0.15 mm  0.075 mm)
  • Hex turned by 180° to use hot exhaust more efficiently during heat up
  • Additional flow configuration for heat up (see upcoming slides)

Flap 1

  • EMICAT electric heater as cold start support for low exhaust temperatures (only lab scale!)
slide15

Development work

    • TB2.3.2: Optimization of cold start operation strategies / design

MK 2 Proto

MK 1 Proto

MK 1 Proto

MK 2 Proto

  • Ltot = 0.3 m
  • Atot = const. = 0.01618 m2

MK 2 Proto

MK 1 Proto

spb2 technologies and approach3
SPB2: Technologies and Approach
  • Development of specific active methane oxidation catalysts (WPB2.2)
    • Catalyst preparation (precious metal and metal oxide technologies)
    • Test of powdered catalysts, structured catalysts, substrates (metal and ceramics)
    • Characterization studies
  • Development of a dedicated thermal management system (WPB2.3)
    • Design and set-up of an integrated exhaust gas heating device (catalytic coated HEX)
    • Modelling of heating device and catalytic combustion, simulation of behaviour
    • Manufacturing, testing and optimisation of HEX
  • Development of operation strategies on engine test bench (WPB2.4)
    • Identification of engine measures for faster light-off
    • Testing of catalyst materials and HEX
    • Optimization of operation strategies for improved CH4-Conversion
  • Demonstration of an exhaust gas aftertreatment system for Euro 6 (WPB2.5)
    • Set-up of CNG engine with the exhaust aftertreatment system (transient bench)
    • Optimization of the catalyst heating including cold-start
    • Demonstration of the system performance (Euro 6 legislation) in NEDC on engine test bench
    • Validation of the catalyst activity in a vehicle configuration for Euro 6 compliance (SPA2)
spb2 wpb2 4
SPB2 WPB2.4

Comparison of exhaust gas composition at Lambda 1, using different operation strategies

The diagram below shows the exhaust gas composition range with different operation strategies. With the used configurations (MPI balanced / unbalanced) for TWC characterization the exhaust gas composition is in the same range as it is with direct injection. So the results done with MPI are valid also for DI

MPI or DI operation / Variation of composition due to unbalancing

DI operation / Variation of composition due to homogenization (injection timing)

MPI operation / balanced (as used for catalyst characterization step 2 / balanced)

MPI operation / unbalanced (as used for catalyst characterization step 2 / unbalanced)

5000

5%

4000

4%

3%

3000

CO, O2 [%]

THC, CH4, NOx [ppm]

2000

2%

1%

1000

0

0

THC

CH4

NOx

CO

O2

spb2 wpb2 41
SPB2 WPB2.4

Catalyst Characterization

This example of the comparison between balanced an unbalanced cylinders shows the significant increase in conversion efficiency. Also the Lambda range with high conversion is much wider than with balanced cylinders

Significantly more exothermic reaction due to CO increase

slide19

Hex testing engine operation points @ AVL

For every load point measuring CO, CH4, NOX, NO, O2, lambda emissions upstream, at U-turn and downstream of hex.

Preliminary stationary results at this operating point will be presented

19

19

lambda sweep 0 97 1 02 1600 rpm 2 bar
Lambda Sweep 0.97->1.02 , 1600 rpm/2 bar

Tin

Catalyst operating temperature significantly increased due to amplification of hex!

20

spb2 technologies and approach4
SPB2: Technologies and Approach
  • Development of specific active methane oxidation catalysts (WPB2.2)
    • Catalyst preparation (precious metal and metal oxide technologies)
    • Test of powdered catalysts, structured catalysts, substrates (metal and ceramics)
    • Characterization studies
  • Development of a dedicated thermal management system (WPB2.3)
    • Design and set-up of an integrated exhaust gas heating device (catalytic coated HEX)
    • Modelling of heating device and catalytic combustion, simulation of behaviour
    • Manufacturing, testing and optimisation of HEX
  • Development of operation strategies on engine test bench (WPB2.4)
    • Identification of engine measures for faster light-off
    • Testing of catalyst materials and HEX
    • Optimization of operation strategies for improved CH4-Conversion
  • Demonstration of an exhaust gas aftertreatment system for Euro 6 (WPB2.5)
    • Set-up of CNG engine with the exhaust aftertreatment system (transient bench)
    • Optimization of the catalyst heating including cold-start
    • Demonstration of the system performance (Euro 6 legislation) in NEDC on engine test bench
    • Validation of the catalyst activity in a vehicle configuration for Euro 6 compliance (SPA2)
slide22

SPB2: Road Map Catalyst / HEX testing

Catalysts:

Pd/Rh 170 g/ft3

Pd/Rh 200 g/ft3

Pd/Rh 300 g/ft3

Pt/Pd/Rh 200 g/ft3

Catalysts:

Pd/Ce2O3 300 g/ft3

Pd-Rh/CeO3 300 g/ft3

Deliverable/MS: New delivery date

Catalysts:

Best formulation

New time table