Modernization • Modernization refers to a process of change by which traditional, nonindustrial societies acquire characteristics of technologically complex societies. • Accelerated modernization interconnecting all parts of the world is known as Globalization.
MODERNIZATIONSUBPROCESSES Technological development Agricultural development Industrialization Urbanization
GLOBALIZATION Global Challenges, Local Responses, andthe Role of Anthropology
Cultural Future of Humanity Anthropologists unlike futurist projections try to view things in context, further than 50 years from the present. They have a long-term historical perspective and recognize culture bound biases. Anthropologists are concerned with the tendency to treat traditional societies as obsolete when they appear to stand in the way of “development.”
Global Culture • Since the 1950’s it has been a belief that eventually the world will become one large homogeneous culture. • Evident through such things as fast food chains and soda companies like Pepsi and Coca Cola. • Here is a look at the KFC and Pizza Hut next to the Pyramids at Giza (23 seconds) • Meaning that if a North American were to travel abroad, no matter the destination, they would see a similar culture to their own in North America. • Do you think this could be possible?
Global Culture, Good? In theory it might sound like a world with more peace and less misunderstandings of differing cultures. The reality is that it is unlikely that cultures will change into one similar culture especially if they are being forced to quickly do so by outside powerful nations. What is created are poorer peasant communities who are in the crosshairs of “westernization” and their indigenous life ways. Since they failed to change quick enough for the western corporate powerhouses.
Ethnic Resurgence • The presence of westernization is glaringly obvious worldwide with the diffusion of western food, clothes, music, etc. • This does not mean it is accepted. There is an increase of ethnic pressure against westernization. • Resistance against globalization is becoming much more frequent.
Cultural Pluralism & Multiculturalism • So what is the future? • Chances are it includes a world with multiculturalism- a public policy of mutual respect and tolerance for cultural differences. • Ethnic tension, common in pluralistic societies, sometimes turns violent, leading to formal separation. • To manage cultural diversity within such societies, some countries have adopted multiculturalism as an official public policy.
Structural Power • Structural power is the power that organizes and orchestrates the systemic interaction within and among societies. • Often directing economic and political forces on the one hand and ideological forces that shape public ideas, values, and beliefs on the other.
Structural Power Two major interacting forces of structural power: Hard power is the type of power that is backed up by economic and military force. Soft power is the type of power that is co-optive where one’s ideas are pressed onto others through attraction and persuasion to change one’s ideas, beliefs, or values.
Economic Hard Power • Large corporations which are usually a cluster of several smaller corporations held together by common interest, money, and strategy are controlled by one group in one country. • Their power and wealth, often exceeding that of national governments, has increased dramatically through media expansion.
Economic Hard Power • Mega corporations have enormous influence on the ideas and behavior of hundreds of millions of people worldwide. • States and corporations compete for scarce natural resources, cheap labor, new commercial markets, and ever-larger profits in a political arena that spans the entire globe.
Structural Violence • Structural violence is physical and/or psychological harm (including repression, environmental destruction, poverty, hunger, illness, and premature death) caused by impersonal, exploitative, and unjust social, political, and economic systems. • Current structures are poised to offer wealth, power, and comfort for a lucky few and poverty, suffering, and death for the majority.
The Culture of Discontent As previously mentioned the world’s poorest countries have been told that they can and should enjoy a standard of living comparable to that of the rich countries. The resources necessary to maintain such a luxurious standard of living are limited. Non renewable resources would quickly disappear at such a high rate of consumption. This growing gap between expectations and realizations has led to the creation of a culture of discontent.
The Culture of Discontent • The culture of discontent is not limited to poor and overpopulated countries. • It can be found among the most wealthy and enduring nations. • Where the people are spending money to obtain material riches which often lead to more discontent.