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The Mongols. 7 th Grade History. CONTENTS. Genghis Khan Mongol Culture Legacy Sources. Genghis Khan (ca. 1165 -. Temujin born clutching a clot of blood. At nine years old Temujin and his father Yesugei ride to pick a bride from Hoelun’s (his mother) clan.

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The mongols

The Mongols

7th Grade History


  • Genghis Khan

  • Mongol Culture

  • Legacy

  • Sources

Genghis khan ca 1165
Genghis Khan (ca. 1165 -

  • Temujin born clutching a clot of blood.

  • At nine years old Temujin and his father Yesugei ride to pick a bride from Hoelun’s (his mother) clan.

  • However, he met Börte along the way – “Love at first sight”.

  • Yesugei dies upon the return home. Poisoned by an enemy Tartar tribe.

  • Yesugei’s clan abandons Temujin and his family.

Geography climate
Geography & Climate

  • Mongolia is known to the world as country of "Blue Sky". Along with Southern Siberia this part of Asia has a continental climate, with long, cold, dry winters and brief, mild, and relatively wet summers. In Mongolia there are 250 sunny days a year, often with clear cloudless skies.

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  • Wood frame

  • Felt cover (sheep’s wool)

  • Rounded with fire pit in middle

  • Door always faced south

  • Could be set up or taken down to fit their nomadic lifestyle.

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  • White Foods: dairy products such as cheese, yogurt, and “airag” (fermented mare’s milk) during the summer.

  • Brown Foods: meat usually boiled and served with wild garlic & onions. They would butcher the animal by cutting open the aorta to cause deadly internal bleeding. They would use the blood for sausages.

  • Firestones: Lacking firewood, Mongols burned animal dung to heat stones for cooking.

  • Salty Tea: Water, milk, tea (green or black) and salt.

  • Most Important Animals: Horses, Camels, Sheep/goats.

The devil s horsemen
“The Devil’s Horsemen”

  • Learned to ride as soon as you could walk.

  • Learning to pivot, dodge, stop, with subtle cues.

  • Learned to use weapons while riding.

  • Horse’s needs nearly as important as a human’s.

  • Provided milk, meat, transportation, protection.

  • Europeans called them “The Devil’s Horsemen”

Weaponry armor tactics
Weaponry & Armor & Tactics

  • Archery: shoot more than a dozen arrows per minute at a full gallop.

  • Used composite bows (horn & bamboo).

  • Arrows modified for several uses: piercing armor, carry messages, whistling noises, lit on fire.

  • Warriors who proved loyal and successful in battle were promoted to units of men.

  • Mongols on the front lines carried lances, wore chest armor of hide and iron pieces.

  • Lighter cavalry wore raw silk shirts (pushed silk into the wound and the arrow could pop out).

  • Infantry men were usually prisoners or civilians.

  • Suicide Corp: group galloped toward enemy; turn and fake retreat; when enemy’s horses were tired the entire Mongol force fell upon them.

  • Field commanders used flags, torches and whistling arrows. Their message system was so efficient that armies hundreds of miles apart were able to coordinate their movements perfectly.

  • Obedience and loyalty were strictly followed.

  • Other weaponry included battle axes and scimitars.


  • Shamanism & Animism: everything has a spirit.

  • Some believed the highest god was the eternal blue heaven.

  • Tengri was the god of the mountain that Genghis Khan believed saved his life.

  • A shaman was like a priest that would communicate with the spirit world.

  • Often Mongols adopted the religion of those they conquered (Islam, Buddhism, etc.)

Genghis khan s accomplishments
Genghis Khan’s Accomplishments

  • Unified the Mongol clans.

    • Loyal body guard

    • Adopted foreign children

    • Permitted freedom (esp. religious)

    • Used talents of conquered people (kept them alive)

    • Other Mongols that were conquered could choose to serve in his army

    • Rewarded his soldiers generously

  • Developed the Great Yasa (law system).

  • Inspired a lasting empire.

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The Government of Genghis Khan















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Roman Empire = 2.51 million sq. miles

65,000,000 people

Greek Empire = 3.2 million sq. miles

35,000,000 people

Mongol Empire = 9.3 million sq. miles

100,000,000 people

2X the size of the

Roman Empire!

Great yasa
Great Yasa

  • One must magnify and pay honor to the pure, and the innocent, and the righteous, and to the learned, to whatsoever people they may belong;  and condemn the wicked and the men of iniquity.

  • The first is this:  That ye love another;  second, do not commit adultery;  do not steal;  do not bear false witness;  do not betray anyone. Respect the aged and poor.

  • "Genghis Khan forbade the Mongols to eat anything in the presence of another without inviting him to also partake in the food;  he forbade any man to eat more than his comrades.

  • He forbade them to dip their hands into water and ordered them to use some vessel for the drawing of water.

  • Death to anyone who intentionally lies, or practices sorcery, or spies upon the behavior of others, or intervenes between the two parties in a quarrel to help the one against the other.

  • Death to anyone who urinates into water or ashes.

  • Death to anyone who finds a runaway slave or captive and does not return him to the person to whom he belongs.

  • He forbade them to wash their clothes until they were completely worn out.

  • He ordered men not to hurt each other and to forget offences completely.

  • He ordered men to spare countries and cities which submit voluntarily.

  • If in battle, during an attack or a retreat, anyone drops his pack, or bow, or any luggage, the man behind him must alight and return the thing fallen to its owner;  if he does not so alight and return the thing fallen, he is to be put to death.

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Selected by Genghis to rule with wisdom and mercy

(Wasn’t completely supported by power-hungry brothers)

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Kublai Khan

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Batu Khan


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Timur the Lame



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Mughul Dynasty

Peace and learning


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Empire After Genghis


Wise choice of Genghis…..tried to hold the empire together


Conquered China – Xanadu – Yuan Dynasty


Conquered Russia – Golden Horde


Tall (for a Mongol)…Lame….ruthless beyond words…didn’t prepare for a future

Original sources for the mongols
Original Sources for the Mongols?

  • Marco Polo (1254 – 1324)

  • Friar John of Pian de Carpine(1245 – 1247)

  • William of Rubruck(Flemish Franciscan monk, ca. 1210 – ca. 1270)

  • The Secret History of the Mongols


  • Wiencek, Henry, and Glenn D. Lowry. Storm across Asia. New York, NY: HBJ, 1980. Print.

  • Demi, and Demi. Genghis Khan. Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish Children, 2009. Print.

  • Bankston, John. Genghis Khan. Hockessin: Mitchell Lane, 2013. Print.

  • Helget, Nicole Lea. Mongols. Mankato, MN: Creative Education, 2013. Print.