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Code of the Streets . The development of an oppositional sub-culture A response to “alienation” The code “dictates” social interaction in the inner city The code as a:. Code of the Streets . Socialization at home and on the streets The code is “just” families

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code of the streets
Code of the Streets
    • The development of an oppositional sub-culture
    • A response to “alienation”
  • The code “dictates” social interaction in the inner city
  • The code as a:
code of the streets1
Code of the Streets
  • Socialization at home and on the streets
  • The code is “just”
  • families
    • Generally accept “mainstream” values
  • families
  • Campaigning for Respect”
  • What is “respect?”
code of the streets2
Code of the Streets
  • Gaining Respect
    • A violent, “zero-sum” game.
  • Manhood, and the code as a shield
doing time on the outside
Doing Time on the Outside
  • What is Justice?
  • Key Concepts
how did we get here
How did we get here?
  • Setting the stage
    • Rising crime rate in DC
    • Demographic trends
    • Martinson, 1974
    • Rise of “just desserts” model of punishment
how did we get here1
How did we get here?
  • The “objective” vs. the “subjective”
    • 64 arrests within a two-block radius
    • 120 men “admitted to the D.C. correctional system…”
      • 25% of them on drug charges
      • Others on charges related to drug addiction
the creation of the ghetto
The Creation of the Ghetto
  • Barring Blacks from White neighborhoods
  • Population shifts from the cities to the suburbs
  • Social Disorganization
the creation of the ghetto1
The Creation of the Ghetto
  • Living in a socially-disorganized neighborhood
the creation of the ghetto2
The Creation of the Ghetto
  • Becoming socially disorganized
    • Signs of social disorganization
    • Consequences of social disorganization
the creation of the ghetto3
The Creation of the Ghetto
  • The loss of human and social capital.
incarceration as a response to public order
Incarceration as a response to public order
  • Loss of community
  • Different perspectives
incarceration and the institution of the family
Incarceration and the institution of the family
  • Value families no less than others
  • Missing fathers in ½ the families
  • Why are they missing?
  • Collateral damage…
incarceration and kinship
Incarceration and Kinship
  • Importance of families for socialization
  • Londa and Derek
    • Network map on page 42
incarceration and kinship1
Incarceration and Kinship
  • Addiction, the CJ System’s response to it, and the hardships of incarceration
    • Lying, erratic behavior, late night disappearances, pleading for money, stealing
incarceration and kinship2
Incarceration and Kinship
  • Cycling through addiction and the system
  • Prisoner’s dilemma, the drug edition
oh what a tangled web
Oh, what a tangled web…
  • David’s network
      • But was that the only reason?
    • Cathleen and Davida
      • Shipping inmates out of state
    • Job or life?
oh what a tangled web1
Oh, what a tangled web…
  • Health in the inner-city
    • Risks of a high-risk lifestyle
poverty and health
Poverty and Health
  • Far less likely to have health insurance (this should change, unless…)
  • Generally poor nutrition, which is related to income, can lead to health issues
  • Lower average age of death
prisoner health issues
Prisoner Health Issues
  • Raises concerns because
    • Prisoners in contact with staff who mingle with general public
    • Jurisdiction holding person in correctional facility must pay for health care
incarceration and marriage
Incarceration and Marriage
  • How incarceration undermines marriage and family development
      • Incarcerated, “street,” or “ex-con”
    • Some women “settle”
incarceration and marriage1
Incarceration and Marriage
  • How incarceration undermines marriage and family development
pulling families apart
Pulling families apart
  • Quote on page 89
  • Why are fathers missing?
pulling families apart1
Pulling families apart
  • As incarceration increases, rate of father absence increases than among middle-class families
  • But what does all this data mean?
    • Caution –
pulling families apart2
Pulling families apart
  • Relationships are based on exchange
  • Exchange requires
    • And this trust must be accrued over the
  • Poor families in neighborhoods where incarceration rates are highest have fewer in life.
  • …but there is nothing different about these families, compared to middle-class families
  • Norms of reciprocity, again
  • Accountability
  • A collapse in
  • -family breakdown
  • The added burden of a non-reciprocal relationship
  • Kenny’s contributions
  • Kenny and the Code of the Streets
  • How long did it take for Kenny’s family to feel the effects of his incarceration?
lilly arthur
Lilly & Arthur
  • The extensiveness of this network
  • Maintaining a family from multiple-states away…
  • “…deserving of the kind of open-ended relationship in which participants can call upon one another according to their needs” (117)
  • The of incarceration
  • Difficulties faced post-incarceration
the meaning of incarceration
The meaning of incarceration
  • How to help your loved one in prison?
  • The indignities (and stresses) of visitation
      • Variation in application leads to frustration
two subjective views of incarceration
Two subjective views of incarceration
  • How the incarcerated deals with his shame and guilt
  • What a child feels:
two subjective views of incarceration1
Two subjective views of incarceration
  • What a child feels:
    • Stigma
      • in treatment of loved one
      • in the hardships faced
    • The important need for
direct and indirect costs
Direct and indirect costs
  • The issue of phone calls
  • Care packages
  • Travel to and from prison
  • Direct money contributions and gifts
  • The “less tangible” costs
material and social consequences
Material and Social Consequences
  • 2/3rds of offenders employed
  • Loss of “non-monetary” assistance
  • (the lack of) Wealth Transmission
material and social consequences1
Material and Social Consequences
  • The role of racial disparity in the (criminal justice) system
    • $300,000,000,000
    • ¾ Whites own homes compared to ½ Blacks
    • Blacks have 1/3 the assets of whites
social costs of incarceration
Social Costs of Incarceration
  • The loss of and capital
  • Increased marginal costs
    • The impact of a non-reciprocal exchange relationships
    • Increased transaction costs
    • Social information exchange and the establishment of
    • Sharing the burden through intimate relationships
i believe that children are our future
I believe that children are our future…
  • Incarceration and Childhood
    • Growing up too soon
      • Sibs and household work
    • Sexual abuse
    • Depression
    • Truancy/running away
    • Importance of fathers
    • Scarred children (footnote page 103)
emotional costs of incarceration
Emotional Costs of Incarceration
  • Pains of losing the loved one
  • Fear for loved one in prison
  • Increase in tensions within the family
  • Loss of human connections
  • The incarcerated faces additional worry about their loved ones on the outside
children of the incarcerated
Children of the incarcerated
  • Feelings of loss
  • Lonliness
  • Shame and guilt
  • Eating and sleeping disorders
  • academic performance
costs children pay
Costs Children Pay
  • Father’s absence  early sexual activity in girls
  • This leads to rates of teenage pregnancy
  • Which in turn is linked to:
    • educational attainment
    • career achievement
costs children pay1
Costs Children Pay
  • Which in turn is linked to:
    • educational attainment
    • career achievement
    • Health problems
    • Inadequate social support for parenting
    • All of which leads to continued exposure to poverty, and the continuing of the cycle…
social silence
Social silence
  • Why don’t we know more about these issues?
  • Stigma defined
  • the role of shame in punishment
  • Stigmatizers and the Stigmatized
  • Stigma and daily life
the presentation of self in social life
The Presentation of Self in Social Life
  • The “self” as a transaction
  • The looking-glass self/reflected appraisals
  • The role of identity
  • Identity hierarchy
  • Identity as a transaction
  • How identity influences social interaction
stigma and social networks
Stigma and social networks
  • Sticky stigma
  • Stigma travels through social networks
  • Stigma and Identity
  • Reflected Appraisals
  • The Hidden Cost of Shame
religion as coping mechanism
Religion as coping mechanism
  • Prayer as a way to cope with life’s problems.
  • Way to cope with problems on feels they have no control over
  • Religious beliefs and Religious communities
social silence1
Social Silence
  • Incarceration and Stigma are generally hidden
  • Speech is public. Silence and estrangement is private
  • “…a repression of public thought, of our collective imagination.”
brining these stories to light
Brining these stories to light
  • Collateral damage of punishment
  • How law shapes perceptions and identity
braman s last word pg 224
Braman’s last word (pg. 224)
  • The failure of the criminal justice system “stems from a fundamental misapprehension of the social world, one that obscures the relationships individuals have with one another. By conceptually stripping individuals of their most common and fundamental commitments, policymakers have imagined that they can transform poverty-stricken neighborhoods through the sheer force of the sanctions imposed.”