the christian emergence n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
The Christian Emergence PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
The Christian Emergence

The Christian Emergence

79 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

The Christian Emergence

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. The Christian Emergence

  2. Questions to Consider • Edward Gibbon’s 5 Reasons for Christianity’s victories • Inflexible and intolerant • Promise of resurrection and future life juxtaposed with damnation for nonbelievers • Assertion of Miracles • Morals as the basis for life • Non-political focus • What regulated society prior to the emergence of Christianity? (religiously)

  3. Making Christianity for the People • How did Augustine contribute to the emergence of Christianity? • Added substance and intellectual respectability • Encouraged thinking as a part of the religion • Formation of monk “communities” • Emphasized the “original sin” concept as important • Emphasized that the Church was the authority • There WAS a Church

  4. Christianity and Judaism • How did Christianity compare to Judaism by the 6th Century? • More Christians than Jews • Persecution of Jews • Convert or leave

  5. Spreading Christianity • Explain the following • “For several centuries, Christianity was dominated by thousands of dedicated unmarried men and Women” • How did this change? • Why were monks and nuns so useful when Christianity first started spreading? • They were the front lines • Was Christianity initially focused or fragmented? How so? • Fragmented • The emphasis was on local bishops, churches, and monasteries • What is the difference and significance of the pope and patriarch?

  6. Christianity Basics • MONOTHEISTIC • Trinity (Father, Son, Holy Spirit) • Mass Appeal • Anyone can be a member and in “good standing” • Ideals organized around the New Testament of the Christian Bible • Small in its first three centuries of existence • Divides into east and west (Great Schism) • Pope vs. Patriarch • Benefits from syncretism • Allowing new faith to blend and benefit with/from old religions (Easter) • State important but religion more important • Monastic orders to spread religion (Benedict)

  7. Pre-Islam Arabia

  8. What was this region like? • Population: Sparse • Gender Structure: Patriarchal • Cities were centered around… • trade and religion

  9. What role did Mecca play in this region? • Commercial center • many of the goods in the region moved through this city • Religious Center • Ka’ba • Center of an polytheistic religion • Site of annual pilgrimage during which warfare was suspended • Religion and trade made some people very rich • Quraysh tribe • Settled city and dominated religiously and politically

  10. Who was Muhammad? • Born 570 • Orphaned at age 2 and raised by uncle Abu Talib • As a young man, worked in caravan trade • Married a wealthy Widow • Khadijah • With her supporting him, he could spend much of his time meditating • Lived an ordinary life until • “The Night of Power” • The angel Gabriel came to see him and Allah speaks to him through Gabriel. • Muhammad memorizes what will later become the suras of the Koran • Many wives, four daughters

  11. Muhammad vs. the Quraysh • Why do they not like Muhammad? • He is a threat to their status • As a result of their disdain for him, what happens? • The Hijra – 622 CE Muhammad and his followers to Medina because of Quraysh threat • 622 – 632 Known as the Medina Years • What happens in 630? • Muhammad and his 1000s followers to Mecca to retake city • Converts gained along the way • Makes Ka’ba a monotheistic center • Overtime, many Arab people convert to Islam • Some people convert out of faith and some convert out of seeing that Muhammad will “win” • 632 – Muhammad dies

  12. The Clash Commences • Following Muhammad’s death, who is the clear successor? • No one • People disagree as to who should lead • Who are the possible leaders to follow? • Ali – Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law • Quraysh tribe – some feel they should be in power because they had it before • Abu Bakr – one of the 1st followers, suffered along with Muhammad • Abu Bakr emerges

  13. 5 pillars of Islam

  14. Islam The name of the Religion Good Usage Muhammad founded Islam Bad Usage He is an Islam Muslim A follower of the religion or a part of the religion of Islam Good Usage He established a Muslim empire Bad Usage Muhammad founded Muslim What’s in a Name?The difference between Islam and Muslim

  15. Muslim Caliphates The Umayyad and Abbasid

  16. Abraham Ismail Adnan Quraiysh Qussaiy Abdmanaf Abdshams Hashem (Amneh+) Abdallah Abutalib Hamzeh Alabbas Abulahab Alhareth Adbelmuttalib Muhammad Ali Ummayah Dynasty Abbbassides Dynasty (661-750) (750-1258)

  17. Umayyad Caliphate 661 – 750 • Capital: Political center of Islam changed from Mecca to Damascus • Mainly Arab city • Focus: Principle concern was expansion of Islam • Umayyad conquests brought material wealth to the caliphate • Government: Mu’awiyah adopted Byzantine administrative practices • Authoritarian • Navy Founded • Bureaucracy isolated themselves from the general public • Saw themselves as “shadows of God on earth” • Problems: • The Arab focus as emphasized by the Umayyad ruling elite caused dissension • The ruling elite equated Islam with Arab descent • Mawali (Non-Arab Muslims) were discriminated against • This ultimately contributed to the downfall of the caliphate and the rise of the Abbasids Pact of Umar: Rights of non-Muslims (dhimmi)

  18. Abbasid Caliphate 750 - 1258 • Capital: moved to the new city of Baghdad • Population of 1 million in 9th Century • Became a center of trade and intellectual thought • Revived Greek classics • Arabic became the language of science and diplomacy • Religious tolerance flourished • Focus: Conquest was not stressed as it was in the Umayyad Caliphate • Came to power via shi’ite support but eventually changed to sunni • The new stress was on development of administrative institutions, commercial enterprise and a legal system • Higher members of society were no longer warriors but now bureaucrats, merchants, and judges • Abandoned the Arab exclusivity • Adopted a policy of Muslim equality • The number of converts increased as conquered peoples now saw this as an advantage } Opposite of Europe

  19. Abbasid Caliphate (cont’d) • Government: First 150 years were marked by political stability and prosperity (Abbasid Empire) • Placed political power in the hands of an absolute monarch • This worked until 945 • At this time, regional dynasties with governors who reported to Baghdad developed and took some of the power away from the absolute rule of the Abbasid Caliphate • Examples: Delhi, Ghazna, Cairo, and Cordoba • Problems: • Power of empire was diminished • 1258 – Abbasid Caliphate falls when Baghdad was sacked by the Hugalu’s Mongol forces

  20. Islam Islam’s Emergence as a power and The Shi’ite Sunni Split 680 CE

  21. History of the Split • Power struggle following Muhammad’s death • The emergence of a caliph • Successor to the prophet • Head of the universal Islamic community • Prominent Caliphs • Abu Bakr – worked to restore breakaway tribes • Umar – worked to stop raiding of tribes from Byzantium and Sassanian Iran • Uthman – murdered by mutinous arabs • Ali –wanted to encourage = and chosen by many (believed to be preferred by M) • Becomes the caliph but it is challenged by Mu’awiya (EVENTUALLY MURDERED) • These 4 are known at the rashidun • Rightly guided caliphs • Personally connected to Muhammad • First 100 years • Reached India(East), Spain (West), North Africa • Most of the areas remain Muslim until 15th century • Not a big emphasis on conversions because Islam was an Arab religion • Mu’awiya – felt since Uthman was of his tribe, he was to be next Caliph • The meet in battle. ALI almost wins but M’s troops want to make a deal • Ali loses support for this action • Umayyad Caliphate • Differences between Mua and Ali – Fight and M’s troops put Koran's on spears. Ali accepts arbitration. (M wouldve lost and seen as a weak move) but not what Ali sees. Two negotiate (Ali rep – Abu Musa M – Amar. Decide that neither leaders hsould rep and annoucne byt

  22. The Split: The Role of Husayn • Mu’awiyah succeeded by his son • Ali’s son (Husayn)faced Yazid I in the Battle of Karbala • Convinced to engage in battle by partisans (aka shi’a) • Shi’a claim he agreed and was motovated by his desire to return Islam to a more pure form (non secular) • Martyrdom • Husayn was killed and became a martyr • This event was a symbol of the struggle for justice and oppression of the Muham’s fam

  23. Shi’ite • Belief in religious purity • Only descendents of Ali could be the imam or rightful caliph • Ali was Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law • The first 11 caliphs were assassinated • The 11thimam’s son disappeared and the hereditary line ended (Muhammad al-Madhi) • After this time, “twelver” Shi’ism began Leader was divine • They are looking forward to the appearance of the madhi or the “rightly guided one” • One of the largest holidays is the commemoration of Husayn’s death on which people publicly weep and flagellate themselves

  24. Shi’ite • Accounts for 16% of Islam • Location • mainly in Iran, Iraq and some in Pakistan and India • Religious purity • Wanted a caliph who represented Islam’s religious interest and not imperial expansion • ISLAM IS A RELIGION

  25. Sunni • Leader was pious but not a religious figure • Followers of the Prophet • 83% of Islam • look more to the letter of Koran • Imam is an elected or chosen official • ISLAM IS A WAY OF LIFE

  26. Sunni – Shi’ite Differences • Difference of Beliefs • Conflict • View of Allah – Sunni believe that Allah has a “spiritual body” (people are not capable of understanding his power) • Shi’ite see Allah as a spiritual presence • Shi’ite also see Ali and Fatima’s words as holy • Sunni see ONLY Mohammad's as holy (others are guidance but not holy) • Shi’ite – Look more to the interpretation of the Koran (the hidden meaning al-baten) while Sunni take only what is written

  27. Sufism • Islamic mysticism • Renounced worldly goods • Dedicate themselves to prayer and meditation in an effort to emulate the prophet • Many Muslims were against this but it led to mass conversions • Highly controversial in places like Afghanistan under Taliban where it was outlawed


  29. MOSQUE

  30. MOSQUE COMPONENTS The mihrab is the position of the person leading the congregation in prayer Pulpit Platform in line with Mihrab for Muezzins Imam – prayer leader

  31. QIBLA The direction in which the believer orients himself or herself for salat

  32. MIHRAB



  35. KABA N, S, E, W Center of the World

  36. DOME OF THE ROCK Built over as-Sakhra (the rock), considered the spot where the prophet Muhammed ended his Night Journey to Jerusalem and ascended to heaven.






  42. How does this style of architecture/art differ from the Jewish or Christian? • Why? • How are Muslim beliefs reflected in their art and architecture?

  43. The Spread of Islam, 10th-16th Centuries • III. The Coming of Islam to South Asia • By 1200, Muslims rule much of north, central • Conflict between two different systems • Hindu religion v. Muslim monotheism • Muslim egalitarianism v. Indian caste system