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The Christian Emergence

The Christian Emergence

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The Christian Emergence

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  1. The Christian Emergence

  2. Questions to Consider • Edward Gibbon’s 5 Reasons for Christianity’s victories • Inflexible and intolerant • Promise of resurrection and future life juxtaposed with damnation for nonbelievers • Assertion of Miracles • Morals as the basis for life • Non-political focus • What regulated society prior to the emergence of Christianity? (religiously)

  3. Making Christianity for the People • How did Augustine contribute to the emergence of Christianity? • Added substance and intellectual respectability • Encouraged thinking as a part of the religion • Formation of monk “communities” • Emphasized the “original sin” concept as important • Emphasized that the Church was the authority • There WAS a Church

  4. Christianity and Judaism • How did Christianity compare to Judaism by the 6th Century? • More Christians than Jews • Persecution of Jews • Convert or leave

  5. Spreading Christianity • Explain the following • “For several centuries, Christianity was dominated by thousands of dedicated unmarried men and Women” • How did this change? • Why were monks and nuns so useful when Christianity first started spreading? • They were the front lines • Was Christianity initially focused or fragmented? How so? • Fragmented • The emphasis was on local bishops, churches, and monasteries • What is the difference and significance of the pope and patriarch?

  6. Christianity Basics • MONOTHEISTIC • Trinity (Father, Son, Holy Spirit) • Mass Appeal • Anyone can be a member and in “good standing” • Ideals organized around the New Testament of the Christian Bible • Small in its first three centuries of existence • Divides into east and west (Great Schism) • Pope vs. Patriarch • Benefits from syncretism • Allowing new faith to blend and benefit with/from old religions (Easter) • State important but religion more important • Monastic orders to spread religion (Benedict)

  7. Pre-Islam Arabia

  8. What was this region like? • Population: Sparse • Gender Structure: Patriarchal • Cities were centered around… • trade and religion

  9. What role did Mecca play in this region? • Commercial center • many of the goods in the region moved through this city • Religious Center • Ka’ba • Center of an polytheistic religion • Site of annual pilgrimage during which warfare was suspended • Religion and trade made some people very rich • Quraysh tribe • Settled city and dominated religiously and politically

  10. Who was Muhammad? • Born 570 • Orphaned at age 2 and raised by uncle Abu Talib • As a young man, worked in caravan trade • Married a wealthy Widow • Khadijah • With her supporting him, he could spend much of his time meditating • Lived an ordinary life until • “The Night of Power” • The angel Gabriel came to see him and Allah speaks to him through Gabriel. • Muhammad memorizes what will later become the suras of the Koran • Many wives, four daughters

  11. Muhammad vs. the Quraysh • Why do they not like Muhammad? • He is a threat to their status • As a result of their disdain for him, what happens? • The Hijra – 622 CE Muhammad and his followers to Medina because of Quraysh threat • 622 – 632 Known as the Medina Years • What happens in 630? • Muhammad and his 1000s followers to Mecca to retake city • Converts gained along the way • Makes Ka’ba a monotheistic center • Overtime, many Arab people convert to Islam • Some people convert out of faith and some convert out of seeing that Muhammad will “win” • 632 – Muhammad dies

  12. The Clash Commences • Following Muhammad’s death, who is the clear successor? • No one • People disagree as to who should lead • Who are the possible leaders to follow? • Ali – Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law • Quraysh tribe – some feel they should be in power because they had it before • Abu Bakr – one of the 1st followers, suffered along with Muhammad • Abu Bakr emerges

  13. 5 pillars of Islam

  14. Islam The name of the Religion Good Usage Muhammad founded Islam Bad Usage He is an Islam Muslim A follower of the religion or a part of the religion of Islam Good Usage He established a Muslim empire Bad Usage Muhammad founded Muslim What’s in a Name?The difference between Islam and Muslim

  15. Muslim Caliphates The Umayyad and Abbasid

  16. Abraham Ismail Adnan Quraiysh Qussaiy Abdmanaf Abdshams Hashem (Amneh+) Abdallah Abutalib Hamzeh Alabbas Abulahab Alhareth Adbelmuttalib Muhammad Ali Ummayah Dynasty Abbbassides Dynasty (661-750) (750-1258)

  17. Umayyad Caliphate 661 – 750 • Capital: Political center of Islam changed from Mecca to Damascus • Mainly Arab city • Focus: Principle concern was expansion of Islam • Umayyad conquests brought material wealth to the caliphate • Government: Mu’awiyah adopted Byzantine administrative practices • Authoritarian • Navy Founded • Bureaucracy isolated themselves from the general public • Saw themselves as “shadows of God on earth” • Problems: • The Arab focus as emphasized by the Umayyad ruling elite caused dissension • The ruling elite equated Islam with Arab descent • Mawali (Non-Arab Muslims) were discriminated against • This ultimately contributed to the downfall of the caliphate and the rise of the Abbasids Pact of Umar: Rights of non-Muslims (dhimmi)

  18. Abbasid Caliphate 750 - 1258 • Capital: moved to the new city of Baghdad • Population of 1 million in 9th Century • Became a center of trade and intellectual thought • Revived Greek classics • Arabic became the language of science and diplomacy • Religious tolerance flourished • Focus: Conquest was not stressed as it was in the Umayyad Caliphate • Came to power via shi’ite support but eventually changed to sunni • The new stress was on development of administrative institutions, commercial enterprise and a legal system • Higher members of society were no longer warriors but now bureaucrats, merchants, and judges • Abandoned the Arab exclusivity • Adopted a policy of Muslim equality • The number of converts increased as conquered peoples now saw this as an advantage } Opposite of Europe

  19. Abbasid Caliphate (cont’d) • Government: First 150 years were marked by political stability and prosperity (Abbasid Empire) • Placed political power in the hands of an absolute monarch • This worked until 945 • At this time, regional dynasties with governors who reported to Baghdad developed and took some of the power away from the absolute rule of the Abbasid Caliphate • Examples: Delhi, Ghazna, Cairo, and Cordoba • Problems: • Power of empire was diminished • 1258 – Abbasid Caliphate falls when Baghdad was sacked by the Hugalu’s Mongol forces

  20. Islam Islam’s Emergence as a power and The Shi’ite Sunni Split 680 CE

  21. History of the Split • Power struggle following Muhammad’s death • The emergence of a caliph • Successor to the prophet • Head of the universal Islamic community • Prominent Caliphs • Abu Bakr – worked to restore breakaway tribes • Umar – worked to stop raiding of tribes from Byzantium and Sassanian Iran • Uthman – murdered by mutinous arabs • Ali –wanted to encourage = and chosen by many (believed to be preferred by M) • Becomes the caliph but it is challenged by Mu’awiya (EVENTUALLY MURDERED) • These 4 are known at the rashidun • Rightly guided caliphs • Personally connected to Muhammad • First 100 years • Reached India(East), Spain (West), North Africa • Most of the areas remain Muslim until 15th century • Not a big emphasis on conversions because Islam was an Arab religion • Mu’awiya – felt since Uthman was of his tribe, he was to be next Caliph • The meet in battle. ALI almost wins but M’s troops want to make a deal • Ali loses support for this action • Umayyad Caliphate • Differences between Mua and Ali – Fight and M’s troops put Koran's on spears. Ali accepts arbitration. (M wouldve lost and seen as a weak move) but not what Ali sees. Two negotiate (Ali rep – Abu Musa M – Amar. Decide that neither leaders hsould rep and annoucne byt

  22. The Split: The Role of Husayn • Mu’awiyah succeeded by his son • Ali’s son (Husayn)faced Yazid I in the Battle of Karbala • Convinced to engage in battle by partisans (aka shi’a) • Shi’a claim he agreed and was motovated by his desire to return Islam to a more pure form (non secular) • Martyrdom • Husayn was killed and became a martyr • This event was a symbol of the struggle for justice and oppression of the Muham’s fam

  23. Shi’ite • Belief in religious purity • Only descendents of Ali could be the imam or rightful caliph • Ali was Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law • The first 11 caliphs were assassinated • The 11thimam’s son disappeared and the hereditary line ended (Muhammad al-Madhi) • After this time, “twelver” Shi’ism began Leader was divine • They are looking forward to the appearance of the madhi or the “rightly guided one” • One of the largest holidays is the commemoration of Husayn’s death on which people publicly weep and flagellate themselves

  24. Shi’ite • Accounts for 16% of Islam • Location • mainly in Iran, Iraq and some in Pakistan and India • Religious purity • Wanted a caliph who represented Islam’s religious interest and not imperial expansion • ISLAM IS A RELIGION

  25. Sunni • Leader was pious but not a religious figure • Followers of the Prophet • 83% of Islam • look more to the letter of Koran • Imam is an elected or chosen official • ISLAM IS A WAY OF LIFE

  26. Sunni – Shi’ite Differences • Difference of Beliefs • Conflict • View of Allah – Sunni believe that Allah has a “spiritual body” (people are not capable of understanding his power) • Shi’ite see Allah as a spiritual presence • Shi’ite also see Ali and Fatima’s words as holy • Sunni see ONLY Mohammad's as holy (others are guidance but not holy) • Shi’ite – Look more to the interpretation of the Koran (the hidden meaning al-baten) while Sunni take only what is written

  27. Sufism • Islamic mysticism • Renounced worldly goods • Dedicate themselves to prayer and meditation in an effort to emulate the prophet • Many Muslims were against this but it led to mass conversions • Highly controversial in places like Afghanistan under Taliban where it was outlawed

  28. IslamicART/ARCHITECTURE

  29. MOSQUE

  30. MOSQUE COMPONENTS The mihrab is the position of the person leading the congregation in prayer Pulpit Platform in line with Mihrab for Muezzins Imam – prayer leader

  31. QIBLA The direction in which the believer orients himself or herself for salat

  32. MIHRAB

  33. MINARET

  34. PRAYER HALL

  35. KABA N, S, E, W Center of the World

  36. DOME OF THE ROCK Built over as-Sakhra (the rock), considered the spot where the prophet Muhammed ended his Night Journey to Jerusalem and ascended to heaven.

  37. MOSQUE OF MOHAMMED: MEDINA

  38. ISLAMIC DECORATIC DESIGNS

  39. INTERIOR : BLUE MOSQUE

  40. BLUE MOSQUE

  41. ALHAMBRA

  42. How does this style of architecture/art differ from the Jewish or Christian? • Why? • How are Muslim beliefs reflected in their art and architecture?

  43. The Spread of Islam, 10th-16th Centuries • III. The Coming of Islam to South Asia • By 1200, Muslims rule much of north, central • Conflict between two different systems • Hindu religion v. Muslim monotheism • Muslim egalitarianism v. Indian caste system