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The Emergence of Postmodernism WORLD WAR II AND ITS AFTERMATH The destruction and extensive loss of life during World War II had long-term personal, cultural, political, and economic consequences. After the war, the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as rival superpowers.

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slide1

The Emergence of Postmodernism

WORLD WAR II AND ITS AFTERMATHThe destruction and extensive loss of life during World War II had long-term personal, cultural, political, and economic consequences. After the war, the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as rival superpowers.

Disruption and UpheavalAfter World War II, disruption and dislocation took place throughout the world. Unrest continues in many countries. Hostilities and political uncertainty still characterize the world situation. In the 1960s and 1970s there emerged in the United States a counterculture that had considerable societal impact and widespread influence. The civil rights movement and the women's liberation movement rejected racism and sexism. Feminists charged that Western society's institutions perpetuated male power and subordination of women.

The Dynamics of Power Various ethnic groups and gays and lesbians mounted challenges to discriminatory policies and attitudes and battled discrimination with political action.

slide2

The Emergence of Postmodernism

THE ART WORLD'S FOCUS SHIFTS WESTThe art world also changed as the center of Western art shifted from Paris to New York.

Modernism, Formalism, and Clement GreenbergModernism shifted course in conjunction with the changing historical conditions and demands and became increasingly identified with a strict formalism. The influential art critic Clement Greenberg identified Modernism as a rejection of illusionism and an exploration of each artistic medium's properties. Meanwhile, the distance between progressive artists and the public widened.

The Emergence of Postmodernism Postmodernism may be viewed as a rejection of modernist principles. Postmodernism accommodates a wide range of styles, subjects, and formats.

slide3

Post War Expressionism

FRANCIS BACON

Painting

1946

Oil and pastel on linen

approx. 6' 5" x 4' 4"

POSTWAR EXPRESSIONISM IN EUROPEWorld War II resulted in a pervasive sense of despair, disillusionment, and skepticism.

Existentialism: The Absurdity of Human ExistenceThe philosophy of existentialism, which asserted the absurdity of human existence and the impossibility of achieving certitude, reflected the cynicism of the period. The spirit of pessimism and despair emerged frequently in the European art.

slide4

Post War Expressionism

JEAN DUBUFFET

Vie Inquiète

1953

Oil on canvas

approx. 4' 3" x 6' 4"

Scraped and Smeared Canvases: In Vie Inquiète, or Uneasy Life, Jean Dubuffet presents crudely scrawled or scribbled images painted or incised on a thickly encrusted surface of plaster, glue, sand, asphalt, or other common materials.

slide5

Abstract

Expressionism

Abstract ExpressionismAbstract Expressionism is the first major American avant-garde movement. Abstract Expressionist paintings are usually abstract and express the artist's state of mind. Some Abstract Expressionists adopted Surrealist improvisation methods and created works that had a look of rough spontaneity and exhibited a refreshing energy. Abstract Expressionism developed along two lines: gestural abstraction, which relied on the expressiveness of energetically applied pigment, and chromatic abstraction, which focused on the emotional resonance of color.

slide6

Abstract

Expressionism

JACKSON POLLOCK

Lavender Mist: Number 1, 1950

1950

Oil, enamel, and aluminum paint on canvas

7' 3" x 9' 10".

The Primacy of Process: Jackson Pollock's large-scale gestural abstract painting Lavender Mist: Number 1, 1950 is composed of rhythmic drips, splatters, and dribbles of paint. Emphasis is on the creation process.

slide7

Abstract

Expressionism

WILLEM DE KOONING

Woman I

1950–1952

Oil on canvas

approx. 6' 4" x 4' 10"

A Ferocious and Intense Woman: Willem de Kooning's Woman I, although rooted in figuration, displays the sweeping gestural brushstrokes and energetic application of pigment typical of gestural abstraction.

slide8

Abstract

Expressionism

BARNETT NEWMAN

Vir Heroicus Sublimis

1950–1951

Oil on canvas

7' 11 3/8" x 17' 9 1/4"

Color's Enduring Resonance:Vir Heroicus Sublimis by the chromatic abstractionist painter Barnett Newman consists of a single slightly modulated color field split by narrow bands that serve as accents that energize the field and give it scale.

slide9

Abstract

Expressionism

MARK ROTHKO

Untitled

1961

Oil on canvas

5' 9" x 4' 2"

"Tragedy, Ecstasy, Doom":Mark Rothko's Untitled consists of large shimmering rectangles of intensely luminous pure color with hazy edges that seem to float on the surface of the canvas in front of a colored background. Rothko relies on color and shape to create emotion in the viewer.

slide10

Post-Painterly Abstraction

ELLSWORTH KELLY

Red Blue Green

1963

Oil on canvas

approx. 7' x 11' 4"

Post-Painterly AbstractionPost-Painterly Abstraction developed out of Abstract Expressionism and exhibits a cool, detached rationality with an emphasis on pictorial control. The hand of the artist is conspicuously absent in Post-Painterly Abstraction.

Elemental Hard-Edge Painting: Ellsworth Kelly's completely abstract Red Blue Green has razor-sharp edges and clearly delineated color shapes in a simple composition.

slide11

Post-Painterly Abstraction

FRANK STELLA

Nunca Pasa Nada

1964

Metallic powder in polymer emulsion on canvas

approx. 8' 9" x 17' 6"

"What You See Is What You See": Frank Stella's Nunca Pasa Nada is a simplified image of thin, evenly spaced pinstripes on a colored ground.

slide12

Post-Painterly Abstraction

HELEN FRANKENTHALER

Bay Side

1967

Acrylic on canvas

6' 2" x 6' 9"

Flat Color Field Painting: In Bay Side, Hellen Frankenthaler poured diluted paint onto unprimed canvas and allowed the pigments to soak into the fabric.

slide13

Post-Painterly Abstraction

MORRIS LOUIS

Saraband

1959

Acrylic resin on canvas

8' 5 1/8" x 12' 5"

Stained Canvases: In Saraband, Morris Louis impregnated the canvas with paint by holding up the edges and pouring diluted acrylic resin to create billowy, fluid transparent shapes that run down the length of the unprimed canvas.

slide14

Minimalism

TONY SMITH

Die

1962

Steel

6' x 6' x 6'.

Emphasizing Objecthood:Tony Smith's Die is a simple volumetric construction without an identifiable subject, color, surface texture, or narrative element. By reducing experience to its most fundamental level, Minimalist artists seek to inhibit any form of interpretation and to prevent the viewer finding any meaning in the art before them.

slide15

Minimalism

DONALD JUDD

Untitled

1969

Brass and red fluorescent plexiglass

ten units

6 1/8" x 2' x 2' 3"

each, with 6" intervals

An Unambiguous Visual Vocabulary: Donald Judd sought to avoid ambiguity and falseness in his Minimalist sculpture Untitled, which is comprised of basic geometric boxes constructed of brass and red plexiglass.

slide16

Minimalism

MAYA YING LIN

Vietnam Veterans Memorial

Washington, D.C.

1981–1983

Black granite

each wing 246' long

Healing Psychic Wounds: Maya Ying Lin's simple and austere design for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial is a V-shaped wall constructed of polished black granite panels set into the landscape.

slide17

Minimalism

EVA HESSE

Hang-Up

1965–1966

Acrylic on cloth over wood and steel

6' x 7' x 6' 6"

Compelling Nontraditional Materials: Eva Hesse's spare and simple Hang-Up uses nontraditional sculptural materials to create a disquieting and compelling sculpture that extends into the room.

slide18

Minimalism

DAVID SMITH

Cubi XVIII and Cubi XVII, 1963–1964. Polished stainless steel; Cubi XVIII, 9' 7 3/4" high; Cubi XVII, 8' 11 3/4" high x 5' 4 3/8" x 3' 2 1/8"

Monumental Metal Sculptures: David Smith's large-scale Cubi XVIII and Cubi XVII consist of simple geometric forms made of stainless steel piled haphazardly on top of one another.

slide19

Performance Art

Performance ArtPerformance Art used movements, gestures, and sounds of persons to communicate with the viewer. Generally, Performance Art survives only in documentary photographs taken at the time. It was informal and spontaneous in nature and employed the human body as its primary material.

A Composer's Influence: John Cage composed music using methods such as chance to convey the unpredictable and multilayered qualities of daily existence.

Happenings and Fluxus: Allan Kaprow developed a type of largely participatory event known as a Happening that was performed according to plan but without rehearsal, audience or repetition. The Fluxus group explored the nontraditional and commonplace in performances that were more theatrical than Happenings. Many Fluxus performances followed a compositional "score" and focused on single actions that were usually executed on a stage but without costumes or added decor.

slide20

Performance Art

JOSEPH BEUYS

How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare

1965

Performance as Ritual: Joseph Beuys created actions aimed at illuminating the condition of modern humanity. His How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare incorporates fat and felt to symbolize healing and regeneration.

slide21

Performance Art

JEAN TINGUELY

Homage to New York

1960, just prior to its self-destruction in the garden of the Museum of Modern Art,

New York

Destruction as Creation: Jean Tinguely created the kinetic artwork Homage to New York, which was designed to "perform" and then destroy itself in a large courtyard area at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City.

slide22

Conceptual Art

JOSEPH KOSUTH

One and Three Chairs

1965

Wooden folding chair, photographic copy of a chair, and photographic enlargement of a dictionary definition of a chair

Conceptual art asserted that the "artfulness" of art lay in the artist's idea, rather than in its final expression.

What Constitutes "Chairness"?: Joseph Kosuth's One and Three Chairs consists of an actual chair flanked by a full-scale photograph of the chair and a photostat of a dictionary definition of the word chair.

slide23

POP ART

The Development of Pop ArtPop artists embraced representation and produced an art grounded in consumer culture, the mass media, and popular culture. Employing familiar imagery of the contemporary urban environment, Pop artists made art more accessible and understandable to the public.

slide24

POP ART

RICHARD HAMILTON

Just What Is It That Makes Today's Homes So Different, So Appealing?

1956

Collage

101/4" x 93/4"

British Pop and the Independent Group: Richard Hamilton's small collage Just What Is It That Makes Today's Homes So Different, So Appealing?, which contains references to the mass media, advertising, and popular culture, reflects the values of modern consumer culture through figures and objects cut from glossy magazines.

slide25

POP ART

JASPER JOHNS

Flag

1954–1955

Encaustic, oil, and collage on fabric mounted on plywood

3' 6 1/4" x 5' 1 15/8"

American Pop Art and Consumer CultureThe Pop art movement that flourished in the United States through the 1960s drew its imagery from mass media, mass production, and advertising. Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg introduced elements from popular culture into their art.

Things That Are Seen but Not Looked At: In Flag, Jasper Johns selected a common object that he painted in encaustic.

slide26

POP ART

JASPER JOHNS

Painted Bronze

1960

Cast bronze, paint, approx. 51/2" high, 8" wide, 43/4" deep

Beverages of Bronze: In Painted Bronze, Jasper Johns reconstituted Ballantine Ale cans in bronze, thereby reconstituting what is customarily discarded and presenting it as something worthy of the attention.

slide27

POP ART

ROBERT RAUSCHENBERG

Canyon

1959

Oil, pencil, paper, fabric, metal, cardboard box, printed paper, printed reproductions, photograph, wood, paint tube, and mirror on canvas, with oil on bald eagle, string, and pillow

6' 9 3/4" x 5' 10" x 2'.

"Combining" Painting and SculptureIn his combine Canyon, Robert Rauschenberg attached a stuffed bald eagle and pieces of printed paper and photographs to the canvas. Below the eagle a pillow dangles from a string attached to a wood stick.

slide28

POP ART

ROY LICHTENSTEIN

Hopeless

1963

Oil and acrylic on canvas

3' 8" x 3' 8"

A "Comic" Focus in Art: In Hopeless, Roy Lichtenstein excerpted an image from a comic book and reproduced it in monumental scale, retaining the comic strip's visual vocabulary and employing the printer's benday dot system to modulate colors.

slide29

POP ART

ANDY WARHOL

Green Coca-Cola Bottles

1962

Silk screen on canvas

6' 11" x 4' 9".

The Art of Commodities: For Green Coca-Cola Bottles, Andy Warhol selected an icon of mass-produced, consumer culture and used a visual vocabulary and a printing technique that reinforced the image's connections to consumer culture. The repetition of the image of the Coke bottle reflects the omnipresence and dominance of the product in American society.

slide30

POP ART

ANDY WARHOL

Marilyn Diptych

1962

Oil, acrylic, and silk screen enamel on canvas

A Mythical Celebrity: In Marilyn Diptych, Warhol reproduced a publicity photograph of a Hollywood celebrity in a way that emphasizes the commodity status of the subject.

slide31

POP ART

CLAES OLDENBURGClothespin

1976Cor-Ten and stainless steels

45 ft. x 12 ft. 3 in. x 4 ft. 6 in.

Supersizing Sculpture: Claes Oldenburg made both plaster reliefs of food and clothing items and large-scale, stuffed sculptures of sewn vinyl or canvas that comment on American consumer culture. He also made huge outdoor sculptures of familiar, commonplace objects.

slide32

Superrealism

AUDREY FLACK

Marilyn (Vanitas)

1977

Oil over acrylic on canvas

8' x 8'.

Exploring "Photo-Vision": In her still-life painting Marilyn (Vanitas), Audrey Flack explored the nature of photography and the extent to which photography constructs an understanding of reality. Flack duplicates the smooth gradations of tone and color found in photographs with careful attention to detail. She also alludes to traditional vanitas paintings.

slide33

Superrealism

CHUCK CLOSE

Self-Portrait

1968

Acrylic on canvas

9' x 7'

Large-Scale Portraits: Chuck Close's large-scale Self-Portrait is based on a photograph.

slide34

Superrealism

GERHARDT RICHTER

Iceberg in Fog (Eisberg im Negel)

oil on canvas

27 ½” X 39 3/8”

slide35

Superrealism

DUANE HANSON

Supermarket Shopper

1970

Polyester resin and fiberglass polychromed in oil, with clothing, steel cart, and groceries

life size

Casts of Stereotypical Americans: Duane Hanson's Supermarket Shopper is a life-size figurative sculpture made of polyester resin cast from a plaster mold made from a live model. The sculpture is painted and decorated with a wig, clothes, and other accessories.

slide36

Environmental

Site-Specific

ROBERT SMITHSON

Spiral Jetty

Great Salt Lake, Utah

April 1970

Black rocks, salt crystal, earth, red water, and algae

1,500' long, 15' wide

Most Environmental art (also called Earth art or earthworks) is site specific and exists outdoors. Environmental artists used natural or organic materials, including the land itself, and used their art to call attention to the landscape.

The Enduring Power of Nature: Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty is a huge spiral of black basalt, limestone rocks, and earth that extends out into Great Salt Lake in Utah.

slide37

Environmental

Site-Specific

MICHAEL HEIZER

Double Negative, near Overton, Nevada

1969–1970

1,500' x 50' x 30'

Sculpture as Void: Michael Heizer's Double Negative consists of two massive cuts in the Mormon Mesa near Overton, Nevada. The cuts face each other across a deep indentation in the cliff-like ridge

slide38

Environmental

Site-Specific

CHRISTO and JEANNE-CLAUDE

Surrounded Islands, Biscayne Bay, Greater Miami, Florida

1980–1983

Pink woven polypropylene fabric

61/2 million sq. ft.

The Art of Wrapping: For Surrounded Islands, created in Biscayne Bay in Miami, Florida, Christo and Jeanne-Claude surrounded 11 small, human-made islands in the bay with specially fabricated pink, polypropylene fabric. The piece survives only in photographs, films, and books documenting the project.

slide39

Environmental

Site-Specific

CHRISTO and JEANNE-CLAUDE

slide40

Environmental

Site-Specific

CHRISTO and JEANNE-CLAUDE

slide41

Environmental

Site-Specific

RICHARD SERRA

Tilted Arc

Federal Plaza, Foley Square, New York, New York

1981

removed 1989

A Massive Wall of Steel: Richard Serra's site-specific sculpture Tilted Arc is an enormous 120-foot curved wall of Cor-Ten steel that bisected the large public plaza in front of the Jacob K. Javits Federal Building in lower Manhattan. The sculpture significantly altered the space and traffic flow across the square.

slide42

Postmodernism

POSTMODERNISM IN PAINTING, SCULPTURE, AND NEW MEDIAMany postmodern artists reveal a self-consciousness about their place in the art-historical continuum. They resurrect artistic traditions to comment on and reinterpret those styles or idioms. Postmodern artists challenge the avant-garde's claim to originality and creativity by addressing issues of the copy or reproduction and the appropriation of images or ideas from others. Another major characteristic of postmodernism is the erosion between high culture and popular culture. For many recent artists, postmodernism involves examining the process by which meaning is generated and the negotiation or dialogue that transpires between viewers and artworks. Many postmodern artists reject the notion that each artwork contains a single fixed meaning, and in their work they explore in part how viewers derive meaning from visual material.

slide43

Postmodernism

Neo-Expressionism

JULIAN SCHNABEL

The Walk Home

1984–1985

Oil, plates, copper, bronze, fiberglass, and bondo on wood

9' 3" x 19' 4".

Neo-Expressionism: Neo-Expressionism reflects postmodern artists' interest in reexamining earlier art of the German Expressionists and the Abstract Expressionists.

An Extension of Paint's Physicality: In The Walk Home, Julian Schnabel explored superficially the work of the gestural abstractionists. The work is an amalgamation of painting, mosaic, and low-relief sculpture.

slide44

Postmodernism

Neo-Expressionism

SUSAN ROTHENBERG

Tattoo

1979

Acrylic on canvas

5' 7" x 8' 7"

Horses as Metaphors for Humanity: The loose brushwork and agitated surface in Susan Rothenberg's painting Tattoo identifies her as a Neo-Expressionist.

slide45

Postmodernism

Neo-Expressionism

ANSELM KIEFER

Shulamite

1983

Oil, acrylic, emulsion, shellac, and straw on canvas, with woodcut

9' 6 3/16" x 12' 1 11/16"

Confronting German History: Anselm Kiefer's compelling painting Shulamite has a thickly encrusted surface and images that function on an historically specific level, as well as on mythological or metaphorical levels. Kiefer reexamines German history. The design of the darkened room is based on a building constructed as a memorial to Nazi soldiers but is subverted in the painting and presented as a memorial to Shulamite, the Jewish woman in the Paul Celan poem titled "Death Fugue."

slide46

Postmodernism

Neo-Expressionism

SANDRO CHIA

Rabbit for Dinner

1980

Oil on canvas

6' 9" x 11' 1 1/2"

Transforming Art History Lessons: The color, energy, and power of Sandro Chia's painting Rabbit for Dinner are drawn from previous art and captivate the viewer.

slide47

Postmodernism

Art as Political Weapon

JUDY CHICAGO

The Dinner Party

1979

Multimedia, including ceramics and stitchery

48' x 48' x 48' installed

The persuasive powers of art to communicate with a wide audience is freshly embraced by artists who investigate in their own artwork the dynamics of power and privilege, especially in relation to issues of race, ethnicity, gender, and class.

A Dinner Party Celebrating Women: In The Dinner Party, Judy Chicago used crafts techniques traditionally practiced by women to celebrate the achievements and contributions women made throughout history.

slide48

Postmodernism

Art as Political Weapon

MIRIAM SCHAPIRO

Anatomy of a Kimono (section)

1976

Fabric and acrylic on canvas

6' 8" x 11' 11"

"Femmages" and Women's Invention of Collage: Miriam Schapiro's Anatomy of a Kimono is one of a series of monumental femmages based on the patterns of Japanese kimonos, fans, and robes. The composition repeats the kimono shape in a sumptuous array of fabric fragments.

slide49

Postmodernism

Art as Political Weapon

CINDY SHERMAN

Untitled Film Still #35

1979

Black-and-white photograph

Female Beauty and the "Male Gaze": In Untitled: Film Still #35 (from a series of black-and-white photographs titled Untitled Film Stills), Cindy Sherman appears in a photograph that seems to be a still from a film but is sufficiently generic that viewers cannot relate it to a specific movie. Her photographs examine the way much of Western art has been constructed to present female beauty for the enjoyment of the "male gaze."

slide50

Postmodernism

Art as Political Weapon

BARBARA KRUGER

Untitled (We Won't Play Nature to Your Culture)

1983

Photostat, red painted frame

6' 1" x 4' 1"

Exploring Cultural Notions of Gender: In Untitled (We Won't Play Nature to Your Culture), Barbara Kruger overlaid a ready-made photograph of the head of a classically beautiful female sculpture with a vertical row of text composed of seven words. Kruger incorporated the layout techniques of the mass media to create a familiar advertising format that she then subverted in order to expose the deceptiveness of the media messages.

slide51

Postmodernism

Art as Political Weapon

ANA MENDIETA

Untitled, No. 401

1977

Photograph

1' 1 1/4" x 1' 8"

The Landscape and the Female Body: Ana Mendeita's Untitled No. 401 is a documentary photograph of one of the earth-body sculptures in the Silueta series that document a dialogue between landscape and the female body.

slide52

Postmodernism

Art as Political Weapon

KIKI SMITH

Untitled

1991

Wax

approx. 5' 10" high

Who Controls the Body?: The two life-size wax figures, one male and one female, in Kiki Smith's Untitled depart from conventional representations of the body and comment on how external forces, such as the media, shape people's perceptions of their bodies.

slide53

Postmodernism

Art as Political Weapon

FAITH RINGGOLD

Who's Afraid of Aunt Jemima?

1983

Dyed, painted, and pieced fabric

7' 6" x 6' 8"

Personal and the Political: Faith Ringgold's Who's Afraid of Aunt Jemima? is a quilt composed of dyed, painted, and pieced fabric. It combines written text, embroidered portraits, and traditional patterned squares to create a narrative that is both personal and political.

slide54

Postmodernism

Art as Political Weapon

ADRIAN PIPER

Cornered

1988

Video monitor, table, and birth certificates

An Installation Confronting Viewers: Adrian Piper's installation Cornered included a video monitor placed behind an overturned table. Piper spoke to viewers on the video monitor with a directness that forced viewers to examine their own behaviors and values.

slide55

Postmodernism

Art as Political Weapon

LORNA SIMPSON

Stereo Styles

1988

10 black-and-white Polaroid prints and 10 engraved plastic plaques

2' 7" x 2' 11" each

Counteracting Objectification: In Stereo Styles, a series of Polaroids and engravings, Lorna Simpson focuses on African American hairstyles as a strategy to reveal and subvert conventional representations of gender and race. Simpson also comments on the appropriation of African-derived hairstyles as a fashion commodity, and correlates specific hairstyles with personality traits.

slide56

Postmodernism

Art as Political Weapon

MELVIN EDWARDS

Some Bright Morning

1963

Welded steel

1' 2 1/4" x 10 1/4" x 5 1/2"

"Lynch Fragments": Melvin Edwards's small wall-hung welded steel sculpture Some Bright Morning (in the Lynch Fragment series) is made from found metal objects. The series focuses on the metaphor of lynching as a way to provoke thought about the legacy of racism.

slide57

Postmodernism

Art as Political Weapon

LEON GOLUB

Mercenaries (IV)

1980

Acrylic on linen

10' x 19' 2"

Brutal Visions of Violent Times: Leon Golub's Mercenaries (IV) explores a condition of being through an image reminiscent of news photos of anonymous characters who participate in violence, terrorism, and torture.

slide58

Postmodernism

Art as Political Weapon

MAGDALENA ABAKANOWICZ

Backs

1982

Weaving as a Record of the Soul: Magdalena Abakanowicz made each piece of her installation of Backs by pressing layers of natural organic fibers into a plaster mold to create the slumping shoulders, back, and arms of a series of figures of indeterminate sex that rest legless directly on the floor.

slide59

Postmodernism

Art as Political Weapon

DAVID WOJNAROWICZ

When I Put My Hands on Your Body

1990

Gelatin-silver print and silk-screened text on museum board

2' 2" x 3' 2"

Dealing with AIDS: David Wojnarowicz dealt with issues of homophobia and the tragedy of AIDS in his disturbing and eloquent When I Put My Hands on Your Body in which he overlaid a photograph of a pile of skeletal remains with typed commentary of his feelings about watching a loved one dying of the disease.

slide60

Postmodernism

Art as Political Weapon

Krzysztof Wodiczko

The CECUT Project

Video Projection and headset, microphone and loudspeaker

The purpose was to use progressive technology to give voice and visibility to the women who work in the "maquiladora" industry in Tijuana. We designed a headset that integrated a camera and a microphone allowing the wearer to move while keeping the transmitted image in focus. The headset was connected to two projectors and loudspeakers that transmitted the testimonies live. The women's testimonies focused on a variety of issues including work related abuse, sexual abuse, family disintegration, alcoholism, and domestic violence. These problems were shared live by the participants, in a public plaza on two consecutive nights, for an audience of more than 1,500. projections on the 60-foot diameter facade of the Omnimax Theater at the Centro Cultural Tijuana(CECUT)

slide61

Postmodernism

Art as Political Weapon

JENNY HOLZER

installation at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, New York

December 1989–February 1990

The Efficiency and Authority of Signs: For a major installation at the Guggenheim Museum in New York, Jenny Holzer created a large continuous LED display spiraling around the museum's interior ramp composed of purposefully vague and ambiguous but authoritative sounding statements.

slide62

Postmodernism

And Commodity Culture

JEFF KOONS

Pink Panther

1988

Porcelain

3' 5" x 1' 8 1/2" x 1' 7"

Symbols of Everything Wrong Today?: Jeff Koons's trite and kitschy porcelain sculpture Pink Panther intertwines a magazine centerfold nude with a well-known cartoon character.

slide63

Postmodernism

And the Critique of

Art History

MARK TANSEY

A Short History of Modernist Painting

1982

Oil on canvas, three panels

each 4' 10" x 3' 4"

Postmodern artists exhibit a self-consciousness about their places in the continuum of art history. Artists demonstrate their knowledge about past art and express awareness of the mechanisms and institutions of the art world. Postmodern art may also be a critique of or commentary on fundamental art historical premises.

Evidencing Art History in Art: In his A Short History of Modernist Painting, Mark Tansey provides viewers with a summary of the various approaches to painting artists have embraced over the years.

slide64

Postmodernism

And the Critique of

Art History

ROBERT ARNESON

California Artist

1982

Glazed ceramic

5' 8 1/4" x 2' 3 1/2"

x 1' 8 1/4"

Satirical Ceramic Sculpture: Robert Arneson's ceramic sculpture California Artist was created as a direct response to the critic Hilton Kramer's derogatory comments on the provincialism of California art.

slide65

Postmodernism

And the Critique of

Art History

SHERRIE LEVINE

Untitled (After Walker Evans)

1981

Black-and-white photograph

Challenging Originality: Sherrie Levine's Untitled (After Walker Evans) is an exact duplicate of Walker Evans's 1936 photograph Kitchen Corner, Tenant Farmers, Hale County, Alabama. Levine challenges the notions of originality and authorship.