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The Bible

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The Bible

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  1. The Bible “All Scripture is inspired by God and profitablefor teaching, for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness; 17 that the man of God may be adequate, equipped for every good work,” (2 Tim. 3:16-17). The Bible is the inspired and inerrant Word of God, a collection of 66 books (39 in the OT and 27 in the New Testament). The Bible was written by over 40 different authors, from about 1500 B.C. to about A.D. 90, on three continents, and in three languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek. The Old Testament is a history of God’s people and deals with the origins of mankind in the book of Genesis, their deliverance from captivity in the book of Exodus, and the Law requirements. Page 1 of manual, paragraphs 1-3

  2. The Bible The first five books of the Old Testament are known as the Pentateuch. The New Testament was written from around 40 A.D. to 90 A.D. Chapters in O.T. – 929; N.T. – 260; Verses in O.T. - 33,214; N.T. - 7,959; Total number of verses - 41,173; Words in the O.T. 593,393; Words in N.T - 181,253; Total number of words - 774,746; The shortest chapter is Psalm 117; The Longest is Psalm 119; Ezra 7:21 contains all the letters of the alphabet except “j.” Esther 8:9 is the longest verse. John 11:35 is the shortest verse. Page 1of manual, paragraphs 4-5

  3. The Bible Page 2 of manual

  4. The Bible George Washington: “It is impossible to rightly govern the world without God and the Bible.” John Quincy Adams: “So great is my veneration of the Bible, that the earlier my children begin to read it the more confident will be my hope that they will prove useful citizens of their country and respectable members of society.” Andrew Jackson: “That book, sir, is the rock on which our republic rests.” Abraham Lincoln: “I believe the Bible is the best gift God has ever given to man. All the good from the Savior of the world is communicated to us through this book.” Page 4 of manual, paragraphs 4-5

  5. The Bible - Inspiration and Inerrancy The word "inspiration" means "God breathed.” Therefore, when we say that the Bible is inspired, we are saying that it is authored by God, that God moved through the personality and abilities of the Biblical writers in such a way that what they wrote was without error and was correct in all that they addressed. Therefore, the Scriptures are the product of both men and God. The process of inspiration was not a mechanical dictation during which the apostles heard a voice and wrote down what they heard.  Nor does it mean they went into some sort of a trance and God wrote through them without their knowledge. Page 3 of manual, paragraphs 6-8

  6. The Bible - Inspiration and Inerrancy Instead, the writers were free to write whatthey wanted as they were moved by the Holy Spirit.  In fact, the writings reflect the personalities and styles of the various writers.  Yet, these personalities and styles did not degrade the quality or authority of the Biblical writing. The Christian Church, through its councils in the first few centuries, did not determine what the inspired Scriptures were.  They recognized what they were.  The authority to recognize scripture comes from God, not from any church authority. Christian hear the voice of Christ (John 10:27) and recognize his word. The Church didnot give us the Bible. God gave us the Bible. The Church recognized God’s word. Page 3 of manual, paragraphs 9-10

  7. The Bible - Inspiration and Inerrancy Inerrancy means the Bible is without error in the original documents, and that everything it addresses is without error in fact and understanding.  The Bible is not a scientific book, but what it says scientifically, is accurate: The spherical shape of the earth - (Isaiah 40:22) The earth is suspended on nothing - (Job. 26:7) The stars are innumerable - (Gen. 15:5) The existence of valleys in the seas - (2 Sam. 22:16) The existence of springs and fountains in the sea - (Gen. 7:11; Prov. 8:28) The existence of water paths (ocean currents) in the seas - (Psalm 8:8) The water cycle - (Job. 26:8; 36:27-28; 37:16; Ps. 135:7; Ecc. 1:6-7) The fact that all living things reproduce after their own kind - (Gen. 1:21; 6:19) The nature of health, sanitation, and sickness - (Gen. 17:9-14; Lev. 12-14) The concept of entropy, that energy is running down - (Psalm 102:26) Page 4 of manual, paragraph 11

  8. The Bible - Authority "So shall My word be which goes forth from My mouth; It shall not return to Me empty, without accomplishing what I desire, and without succeeding in the matter for which I sent it," (Isaiah 55:11). Authority basically means, "The power and right to enforce something."  The Christian has the authority to be a child of God (John 1:12).  Jesus has authority to judge (John 5: 26). Furthermore, in regard to the Bible, this authority is the right to declare what is true and what is not true.  This means that the Bible carries the God-ordained and God-derived power of proclaiming who God is, who and what He is not, who Jesus is, what He did on the cross, and what is required of us in order to be forgiven of our sins. Page 5 of manual, paragraphs 12-13

  9. The Bible - Authority The authority of Scripture is not derived by its relationship to the Christian Church; that is, the Church does not grant authority to the Bible.  Neither is Biblical authority derived by a consensus whereby Christians agree that it has authority and then choose to submit to it.  Instead, the authority of Scripture is derived by the virtue of it being authored and inspired of God, and it has authority over everyone, whether they are Christian or not.  Though not everyone submits to God's Word now, they will later when the truths of God's Word are made evident on the Day of Judgment.  Because the Bible comes from God, everything it says is true and authoritative, and will come to pass. Page 5 of manual, paragraphs 13-16

  10. The Bible - Authority This means that the Bible has authority over all areas of the Christian's life. When you speak God's Word, you are speaking authoritatively - so be careful what you say unless you misrepresent God. You need to study the Word, memorize Scripture,and quote it to people when appropriate. The Word of God is powerful, and it must be used during the establishment and defense of the faith. Therefore, when speaking forth the truth of God's Word, be confident that it has the authority to accomplish what God wants it to (Isaiah 55:11). Page 6 of manual, paragraphs 17-19

  11. Interpreting the Bible Because we are sinners, we are incapable of interpreting God’s Word perfectly all of the time. The body, mind, will, and emotions are all affected by sin and this makes 100% interpretive accuracy impossible. However, this does not mean that accurate understanding of God’s Word is unreachable. But it does mean that we need to approach His Word with care, humility, prayer, and reason. One man regards one day above another, another regards every day alike. Let each man be fully convinced in his own mind,” (Rom. 14:5). Page 7 of manual, paragraph 20

  12. Interpreting the Bible Following are generally accepted principles of Biblical interpretation.  Here are some questions you should be asking yourself when studying the Bible: Who wrote/spoke the passage and to whom was it addressed? What does the passage say? Are there any words or phrases in the passage that need to be examined? What is the immediate context? What is the broader context in the chapter and book? What are the related verses to the passage’s subject and how do they affect the understanding of this passage? What is the historical and cultural background? What do I conclude about the passage? Do my conclusions agree or disagree with related areas of Scripture and with others who have studied the passage? What have I learned and what must I apply to my life? Page 7 of manual, paragraph 21

  13. Views on God: Atheism "The fool has said in his heart, ‘There is no God,'" (Psalm 14:1). Atheism is a denial of God and atheists offerdifferent definitions for what it is. "An atheist is someone who believes/knows there is no god." "An atheist lacks belief in a god." "An atheist exercises no faith in the concept of god at all." "An atheist is someone who is a free-thinker, free from religion and its ideas." A strong atheist believes there is no God. A weak atheist does not know if God exists or not. Page 8 of manual, paragraph 22

  14. Views on God: Deism A deist is someone who believes that God exists, but that He is not involved in the world.  He is somewhat like a watchmaker who makes a watch, winds it up, and lets it run on its own, with no further intervention.  In deism, God made the universe, "wound it up," and is letting it run.  He is not involved in the affairs of the universe,or of men.  Page 8 of manual, paragraph 23

  15. Views on God: Theism Theism is the position that maintains there is a God who is distinct from the world/universe, that He created the universe, and that He is involved in the world. Therefore, theism includes Christianity as well as cults such as Mormonism, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Islam. Page 9 of manual, paragraph 24

  16. Views on God: Polytheism Polytheism is the view that there are many gods in existence. Groups that hold to this view are Mormonism, Hinduism, and Wicca. Page 9 of manual, paragraph 25

  17. Views on God: Monotheism Monotheism is the view that there is only one God in all existence. Groups that hold to this view are Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. Page 9 of manual, paragraph 26

  18. God – knowability of "What was from the beginning, what we have heard, what we have seen with our eyes, whatwe beheld and our hands handled, concerningthe Word of Life— 2 and the life was manifested, and we have seen and bear witness and proclaim to you the eternal life, which was with the Father and was manifested to us," (1 John 1:1-2). General Revelation is where God has madehimself known through creation.  "For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made, so that they are without excuse,” (Rom. 1:18).  Pages 9-10 of manual, paragraph 27

  19. God – knowability of The Bible tells us that even those without the Bible can know a little about God.  They can learn that God is powerful, wise, and vast, by looking at creation. But, this does not mean they can figure out that God is a Trinity, or that Jesus is God in flesh, or that they need an atonement to escape God's judgment.  Time Space Matter Page 10 of manual, paragraph 28

  20. God – Special Revelation Special revelation is another term for the Bible.It is called “special” because it is God’s direct written communication to us. The Scriptures clearly teach us that God is the Almighty (Job 11:7), who is incomprehensible (Psalm 145:3), infinite (Psalm 147:5), and wholly "other." Yet, the Bible also tells us that God is knowable (John 17:3; Gal. 4:8-9). This means that though we cannot know Him exhaustively, we can know Him at a level we can comprehend, even if it is limited to our finite abilities.  Page 11 of manual, paragraphs 29-30

  21. God – Special Revelation TAKENOTE We can know that God is love (1 John 4:8). We can know that God loves us (John 3:16). We can know that God is spirit (John 4:24). We can know that God is holy (1 Peter 1:16). We can know that God cannot lie (Titus 1:2). We can know that God knows all things (1 John 3:20). We can know that God is moral since he gave us theTen Commandments (Exodus 20). Page 11 of manual, paragraph 30

  22. God – Special Revelation The Bible is the Special Revelation of God tous so that we might know his will more accurately. “Jesus said to him, ‘I am the way, and the truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father, but through me,’” (John 14:6). It is special revelation that informs us of the person of Jesus, God’s communication to us in human form by which he died on the cross and rosefrom the dead. Page 11 of manual, paragraph 31

  23. Immutability of God God is immutable. This means that God is unchangeable. He is always the same.  He does not grow in wisdom, knowledge, scope, or power.  He is eternally the same, eternally perfect. “For I, the Lord, do not change; therefore you, O sons of Jacob, are not consumed," (Mal. 3:6). "Every good thing bestowed and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of lights, with whom there is no variation, or shifting shadow," (James 1:17). "Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today, yes and forever," (Heb. 13:8). Page 12 of manual, paragraph 32

  24. Immutability of God God does not change in his nature. He is always God (Psalm 90:2). Because God does not change, and because He knows all things from all eternity, you can rest in the knowledge that His plans for you are perfect.  From all eternity His knowledge has been perfect, and when He created the universe and put you in it, He did so with a plan and a purpose.  He is not surprised by your choices, nor is He going to give up on you because of your sin.  He has loved you forever, in an unchanging and perfect way. Page 12 of manual, paragraph 33

  25. God – Holiness Holiness in character is the possession of God alone.  It is the unchanging purity and perfection of His wondrous character.  His character is perfect in morality, essence, and purity.  God cannot sin. God alone is worthy of worship, honor, and glory.He cannot be anything other than pure and perfect in all His ways.  God cannot improve or diminish in moral quality and purity.  Page 12 of manual, paragraphs 34-37

  26. God – Nature of When we speak of the nature of something, we're speaking of its essence. So, when we are speaking of the nature of God, we are speaking about what God is in his innermost being. Unfortunately, when speaking about God and his nature, we must use anthropomorphic terms. In other words, we must use human terms to describe God. Page 13 of manual, paragraphs 38-39

  27. God – Nature of Nature God Does Not Change - Num. 23:19; Mal. 3:6; James 1:17 God is Without Limit - 1 Kings 8:27; Jer. 23:23-24 God is Eternal - Psalm 90:2; 1 Tim. 1:17 God is One - Deut. 6:4; 1 Cor. 8:4 God is Trinitarian - Matt. 28:19; 2 Cor. 13:14 God is Invisible - 1 Tim. 1:17 God is Truth - Psalm 117:2; Jer. 10:10 God is Light - 1 John 1:5 God is Infinite - Jer. 23:24; Psalm 147:5 God is Perfect - 1 Kings 8:27; Psalm 139 Page 13 of manual, paragraph 39

  28. God – Nature of Attributes God is Love - 1 John 4:8,16 God is Merciful - Exodus 34:6; Psalm 67:1; James 5:11 God is Forgiving - Dan. 9:9; Eph. 1:7; Psalm 86:5 God is All-Knowing - 1 John 3:20 God is Everywhere - Psalm 139:7-12 God is All-Powerful - Jer. 32:17,27 God is Incomprehensible - Rom. 11:33; Psalm 145:3 God is Most Wise - Rom. 16:27; Jude 25 God is Most Holy - Isaiah 6:3; Rev. 4:8 God is Most Free - Psalm 115:3 God is Most Absolute - Isaiah 44:6; Acts 17:24-25 God is The Creator - Isaiah 40:12,22,26 Page 13 of manual, paragraph 39

  29. Omniscience "...for God is greater than our heart, and knows all things,” (1 John 3:20). Omniscience is that quality of knowing all things. There is nothing that God does not know whether it be actual or potential. This means that God knows everything that does exist as well as could exist. Page 14 of manual, paragraph 40

  30. Omnipresence Omnipresence is that quality of being everywhere. God's presence is in the entire universe, in all places, in all time, in all dimensions. "Where can I go from Your Spirit? Or where can I flee from your presence? 8 If I ascend to heaven, you are there; If I make my bed in Sheol, behold, you are there. 9 If I take the wings of the dawn, if I dwell in the remotest part of the sea, 10 even there your hand will lead me and your right hand will lay hold of me. 11 If I say, 'Surely the darkness will overwhelm me, and the light around me will be night,' 12 Even the darkness is not dark to you, and the night is as bright as the day. Darkness and light are alike to you," (Psalm 139:7-12).  Page 14 of manual, paragraphs 41-42

  31. Omnipotence “Ah Lord God! Behold, you made the heavens and the earth by Your great power and by Your outstretched arm! Nothing is too difficult for You...27 Behold, I am the Lord, the God of all flesh; is anything too difficult for me?” (Jer. 32:17, 27 ). God is able, because of his infinite power, to accomplish anything he desires. God will not desire to do anything contrary to his nature nor can God accomplish the logically impossible such as make a round square, or not be what he is. Therefore, God is all-powerful, and can do whatever he desires to do. Notice the trinity of omni’s: Knows all, is everywhere, is all powerful. God cannot not know something God is everywhere in the universe God can do anything he desires. Page 15 of manual, paragraphs 43-44

  32. God – Trinity The word "trinity" is a term used to denote the Christian doctrine that God exists as a unity of three distinct persons: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The Father is not the same person as the Son who is not the same person as the Holy Spirit. Yet, there are not three gods, but only one. If you remember an earlier lesson about God being revealed in nature, we can find an analogy to use to describe the Trinity. Time Space Matter Page 16 of manual, paragraphs 45-47

  33. God – Trinity, continued Let’s take a look at time. Time consists of three “parts”: past, present, and future. Each part shares the same nature of being time. Yet, the past is not the same as the present which is not the same as the future. However, there are not three times, but one thing we call time that encompasses three parts: past, present, and future. Likewise the Trinity is one God with three "parts", the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Each shares the same essence of being divine, yet there are not three gods, but one. "The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit, be with you all,” (2 Cor. 13:14). Page 16 of manual, paragraphs 48-49

  34. God – Trinity, continued So when developing the doctrine of the Trinity, we first understand that the Bible teaches there is only one God in all existence. I am the LORD, and there is no other; besides me there is no God," (Isaiah 45:5). “Thus says the Lord, the King of Israel And his Redeemer, the Lord of hosts: ‘I am the first and I am the last, and there is no God besides me,'" (Isaiah 44:6). "I am the Lord, and there is no other; besides me there is no God," (Isaiah 55:5). Page 17 of manual, paragraph 50

  35. God – Trinity, continued Once we see there is only one God, we then see what the Scripture says about the Father, The Son, and The Holy Spirit. Page 17 of manual, paragraph 51

  36. God – Trinity, continued Theologians have designated the encompassing of these attributes in the term "person". As you can see, each of the persons is called God, speaks, as a will, loves, is everywhere, is all-knowing, etc. In the context of the Trinity, the word person does not designate a being the way we would speak of a person who might speak to on the street. Theologians use the term to designate the three "parts" each of which is self-aware, aware of others, his divine, speaks, etc. Therefore, the Trinity is arrived at by using Scripture and logic. If there is only one God, and the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are each called God, then we have one God in three persons. "Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit," (Matt. 28:19). Page 18 of manual, paragraphs 52-54

  37. Jesus "You search the Scriptures, because you think that in them you have eternal life; and it is these that bear witness of me," (John 5:39). Jesus is who the Bible is about. He is the most important figure in human history. Jesus claimed to be God in flesh. He said, “Before Abraham was, I am,” (John 8:58). He was referencing Exodus 3:14 when Moses asked God what was his name and God answered, “I am that I am am.” Jesus is called the exact representation of God (Heb. 1:3). And when he was called God by Thomas (John 20:28), Jesus did not deny it. Page 19 of manual, paragraphs 55-56

  38. Jesus Jesus is the Creator of all things (John 1:1-3; Col. 1:15-17) Jesus is the Rock (1 Cor. 10:4) Jesus is the King (Matt. 2:1-6; Luke 23:3) Jesus is the Light of the world (Rom. 9:5) Jesus is the Savior (John 4:42; 1 John 4:14) Page 19 of manual, paragraph 56

  39. Jesus It is Jesus who died for us (1 Thess. 5:10), and rose again in the same body he died in (John 2:19-21; 1 Thess. 4:14).  It is Jesus who reveals grace and truth (John 1:17; John 6:45), who reveals the Father (Matt. 11:27; Luke 10:22), who cleanses us from our sins (1 John 1:9), is worshipped, (Matt. 2:2,11; 14:33; John 9:35-38; Heb. 1:6), gives eternal life (John 10:28; 5:40), and who alone is the way, the truth, and the life (John 14:6).  Page 19 of manual, paragraph 57

  40. The Hypostatic Union The hypostatic Union is the theological term used to describe the two natures of Jesus existing in one person. So, in the one person of Jesus there are two distinct natures: God and Man. Because Jesus was born of the Virgin Mary, he was made under the law. This was so he might fulfill the law of God perfectly. After all, only God could live his law perfectly and not sin. Page 20 of manual, paragraphs 58-59

  41. The Hypostatic Union "But when the fullness of the time came, God sent forth His Son, born of a woman, born under the Law, (Gal. 4:4). Because Jesus was born of the Virgin Mary, he was made under the law. This was so he might fulfill the law of God perfectly. After all, only God could live his law perfectly and not sin. 1 Pet. 2:22 when referring to Jesus says, “…who committed no sin, nor was any deceit found in his mouth.” Page 20 of manual, paragraph 59

  42. Purpose of the incarnation The purpose of the Incarnation is multifaceted.  Of course, its primary purpose was to provide an atoning sacrifice, by which we might be saved from the righteous judgment of God.  Without the shed blood of Christ, there is no hope for anyone to be forgiven of his orher sins (Heb. 9:22).  This is perhaps the greatest purpose of the incarnation. Butforgiveness of sins isn’t the only reason Jesus became a man. reasons. Page 21 of manual, paragraphs 60-61

  43. Purpose of the incarnation . . . explain the Father (John 1:18) . . . render the devil powerless (Heb. 2:14) . . . serve (Matt. 20:28) . . . preach the Kingdom of God (Luke 4:43) . . . bring division (Luke 12:51) . . . do the will of the Father (John 6:38) . . . give the Father's words (John 17:8) . . . testify to the truth (John 18:37) . . . destroy Satan's power (Heb. 2:14) . . . fulfill the Law and the Prophets (Matt. 5:17) . . . give life (John 10:10,28) . . . taste death for everyone (Heb. 2:9) . . . proclaim freedom for believers (Luke 4:18). Page 21 of manual, paragraphs 60-61

  44. Jesus – as mediator "For there is one God, and one mediator also between God and men, the man Christ Jesus,” (1 Tim. 2:5). A mediator is a go-between, someone who intervenes on behalf of two parties. A Jesus is our mediator by virtue of his being God in flesh and fulfilling the law perfectly. This means that our prayers to God can be heard through the mediation of Christ. Jesus is the mediator of a new covenant. "And for this reason He is the mediator of a new covenant, in order that since a death has taken place for the redemption of the transgressions that were committed under the first covenant, those who have been called may receive the promise of the eternal inheritance,” (Heb. 9:15). Page 22 of manual, paragraph 62

  45. Jesus – as mediator In the New Covenant, Jesus has provided a new arrangement between God and people in which the Law of God is written on our hearts instead of tablets of stone, (Jeremiah 31:31-33). “Mr. Daniel Webster, can you comprehend how Christ could be both God, and man?  Mr. Webster promptly replied, “No, sir, I cannot comprehend it.  If I could comprehend Him, He would be no greater than me.  I feel that I need a super-human Savior.” Page 22 of manual, paragraph 63

  46. Jesus’ death The death of Jesus Christ is the single most importantevent in the history of the entire universe.  The reasonthe crucifixion is so important is because of who was crucified -- not because of the objects for whom the crucifixion was intended. The value of the Cross is found in the One who was crucified there, not for whom He died. The death of Jesus is the death of the Man Who is the Word made flesh (John 1:14).  The death of Christ is the event wherein God allowed Himself to succumb to the sinfulness of man, that He might redeem man.  The death of Christ is the event in which God became weak, so that we might become strong.  The death of Christ is the event in which God suffered, so that we will not.  Because it is God who died on the Cross, His death is of infinite value.  Because His death is of infinite value, it is sufficient to cleanse us all of our sins (1 John 1:7). Page 23 of manual, paragraphs 64-65

  47. Jesus’ death Furthermore, the death of Christ was a condemnation of the idea that we can earn our place with God.Our righteous deeds are filthy rags before God (Isa. 64:6) and because we are affectedby sin in all that we are, we are unable to keep the Law perfectly.  For this reason, righteousness does not come by the Law.  If it did, then Jesus died needlessly: "I do not nullify the grace of God; for if righteousness comes through the Law, then Christ died needlessly," (Gal. 2:21).  Since He did need to die, then we cannot be made right before God by what we do, and we must rely on what God does. “When Jesus became sin for us, our sins were laid upon Him as He bore them in His body on the Cross (1 Pet. 2:24).   When He died, those sins died with Him.” Page 23 of manual, paragraph 66

  48. What Did Jesus' Death on the Cross Accomplish? The death of Jesus on the Cross is what cleanses us from our sins.  Our sins were imputed to Christ which means they were reckoned to his account. That is, they became His, and thus He became sin: "He made Him who knew no sin to be sin on our behalf, that we might become the righteousness of God in Him," (Gal. 5:21).  When Jesus became sin for us, our sins were laid upon Him as He bore them in His body on the Cross (1 Pet. 2:24).  When He died, those sins died with Him.  Since the Bible tells us that sins are cleansed by blood (Heb. 9:22), the shed blood of Jesus cleanses us of all sins:  "but if we walk in the light as He Himself is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus His Son cleanses us from all sin," (1 John 1:7).  Page 24 of manual, paragraph 67

  49. What Did Jesus' Death on the Cross Accomplish? Therefore, the death of Jesus on the Cross removedour sin, made us right before God, saved us from thewrath of God, and guaranteed that we will forever be with the Lord. I counted dollars while God counted crosses. I counted gains while He counted losses! I counted my worth by the things gained in store. But He sized me up by the scars that I bore. I coveted honors and sought for degrees; He wept as He counted the hours on my knees. And I never knew ’til one day at a grave, How vain are these things that we spend life to save! Page 24 of manual, paragraph 67

  50. Jesus’ Resurrection ! The resurrection of Jesus is an essentialdoctrine in Christianity.  If Jesus is not raised from the dead, then we are dead in our sins.  1 Cor. 15:14 says, "and if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is vain, your faith also is vain."  Without the resurrection, we have no hope of being delivered from the jaws of eternal death.His resurrection was proof that his sacrifice was acceptable to God the Father. Jesus rose from the dead, physically.  We know this, because He prophesied He would rise physically.  "Jesus answered and said to them, 'Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.' 20The Jews therefore said, 'It took forty-six years to build this temple, and will you raise it up in three days?' 21But He was speaking of the temple of His body," (John 2:19-21).  Page 25 of manual, paragraphs 68-69