History • For centuries China was a closed country trading only with their neighbors. They distrusted western nations. • Eventually European nations and the US forced their way into China • China was not strong enough militarily to keep the westerners out.
History • China became divided into 3 groups: • Give up traditional ways and adopt western ways • Reject western ways • Combination of both Sphere of Influence – Areas where an outside power has some political and economical influence but does not directly govern
History • Nationalist Party – disliked foreigners, but liked western ideas Sun-Yat-Sen – became the Nationalist leader of China
History • Warlords – Regional leaders with their own military. They caused problems for Sun because he was unable to control all of China
History • Chiang Kai Shek – took over after Sun died. He was able to defeat each warlord and unify China • A split began in the Nationalist Party. Some favored Russian-style Communism
History • Chiang ordered all Communists within the party to be killed The Communists fled to the southern mountains. Chiang sent troops to wipe out the Communists In 1934 – Communists flee again on what is now called the Long March. Many died along the way hunger disease attacks by Nationalist troops
Long March • The march covered 18 mountain ranges, 20 rivers, 8,000 miles and took 370 days • Of the 86,000 that set out, only 36,000 survived. Many were killed but some deserted.
Communist leader • Mao Zedong (Mao-Tse-Tung) became the new leader of the Communist Party
Communism • Japan took advantage of China’s problems and attacked. The Communists and Nationalists had to set aside their differences and unite to fight their common enemy • Many previously uninterested Chinese peasants joined the Communist Party
Communism • 1949 – Communists and Nationalist begin fighting again but this time the Communists win. • Taiwan – Chiang and the Nationalists fled here
Communism • Chiang established a government in Taiwan that was recognized by the US and most of the West. They did not recognize Mao’s Communist government as the official government of China • October 1, 1949 – A new Communist nation is established: The People’s Republic of China • Chiang’s government in Taiwan was never able to defeat the Communists and eventually the US and the West recognized Mao’s government as the official government of China
The Great Leap Forward • Collective Farms – A system of government owned farms where farmers work together to grow crops and share the profits
Great Leap Forward • Great Leap Forward – A system put in by Mao when collectives failed • Set up self-sufficient people’s communes • Contained agriculture and industry • The government made all production decisions • Resembled military life • Failed miserably – Great Leap Backward
Great Leap Forward • Command system – The government decides what goods and services will be produced • Demand system – the people make the production decisions based on their purchases • Mao was criticized and urged to slow down. “Reform takes time.”
The Cultural Revolution - 1966 • Designed to re-educate the population about Communism • Red Guard – Radical young men and women hired by Mao to enforce policies and re-educate citizens
The Cultural Revolution • The idea was to destroy the 4 “olds” • Old ideology • Old thought • Old habits • Old customs
The Cultural Revolution • Opposition was beaten, jailed, or executed • The Cultural Revolution failed and ended in 1969 but it continued in rural areas for several more years • Legacy: • Economy was nearly ruined • Thousands of innocent people were in jail • An entire generation was left only partially educated
Deng • In 1976 Mao died • Deng Xiaoping becomes the new leader • Areas to improve: • Agriculture • Industry • Science • Technology
Change • Contract Responsibility System – Allowed families to “rent” land from the government and grow whatever they wished. They paid their rent in crops, but were allowed to sell excess crops on the open market for whatever price they could get. • Production rates increased rapidly
Change • Heavy industry – mass production of steel items – tractors, trucks, etc. This was a priority under Stalin and Mao • Light industry or consumer goods – Deng shifted the industrial focus away from heavy industry and placed it here. He believed that Chinese citizens would buy these goods with their new disposable income
Trouble • The “fifth Modernization” – People were happy with economic growth but now wanted political freedom • Tiananmen Square – a gathering spot for students to discuss ideas and protest. For a while the government allowed this. • After a time the government banned the protests • Martial law – Law administered during periods of strict military control.
Trouble • June 3, 1989 – protesters ignored the government and held a massive rally • Government troops open fire on the protesters killing 2,000 (no exact figure is known) • The USA and the west expressed outrage at this violation of human rights • China cracked down on all forms of protest.
Tank man • http://youtu.be/mrQqDqOx3KY
Economy • Today China has an open market but there is still some government ownership. • China has the second largest economy in the world and is closing in on the US for #1 • Politically China is still Communist • No real freedom of speech • No real freedom of religion • No freedom of assembly China is a major trading partner of the US and owns much US debt
culture • Population – Nearly 1.4 billion. It is the world’s most populous nation • Mao urged large families figuring that a large population would be difficult to defeat in war • This created many problems especially food and housing shortages • Deng implemented a one child policy • If the policy was not followed, violators faced fines and possible job loss • City dwellers mostly handled the policy but farmers ignored it and faced fines • This policy is still in effect, but not for all parts of China
In order to move • Chinese citizens need government permission • - To insure that some people remain in farming • - To control population of regions (control overcrowding)
Ethnic Groups • China has 56 ethnic groups but they make up only 8% of the population • The Han ethnic group makes up 92% of the population • They speak the Mandarin language • The written language is non-phonetic and gives no clues as to pronunciation • They do not have an alphabet • Ideogram – a picture or character that represents a thing or idea
culture • To read a paper one would have to know 2,000-3,000 characters • To master the written language one would have to know about 20,000 characters • Communication is easier because it eliminates dialect problems and double meaning words
religion • Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism are common • Daoism – happiness lies in living a harmonious relationship with nature
Religion • Based on the teachings of Confucius (DUH!) • People must respect laws • Parents must set a good example and children must obey parents • Must honor ancestors
Buddhism • the goal is nirvana – a state of peace and bliss where there is no pain or suffering • Suffering is caused by craving, usually of material goods. • The way to eliminate suffering is to eliminate craving • Many devout Buddhists take a vow of poverty
Buddhism • Dalai Lama – The leader of the Buddhist faith • Buddhists believe that he is the reincarnate of Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha) • Atheism – The official government view of religion in China
Tibet • Tibet – region in China where life is based on the Buddhist religion. It is communal and very traditional.