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CHAPTER 14 FISH AND SHELLFISH
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CHAPTER 14 FISH AND SHELLFISH

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  1. CHAPTER 14FISH AND SHELLFISH Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  2. Fish and Shellfish • Fish are aquatic vertebrates with fins for swimming and gills for breathing • More than 30,000 known species • Most species live in our seas and oceans • Freshwater species are less numerous • Shellfish are aquatic invertebrates with shells or carapaces • Found in fresh and salt water Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  3. Fish and Shellfish • Due to increased demand, improved preservation, and transportation techniques, good quality fish and shellfish are readily available • Many fish and shellfish are expensive • All are highly perishable • Cooking times are generally short • Taste is generally mild and delicate • Special attention must be given to prevent spoilage and retain quality Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  4. Structure and Muscle Composition • Fish includes fresh and saltwater varieties • Fish has skin and an internal skeleton of bone and cartilage • Fish can be classified into two groups: • Round fish • Flat fish • In cooking, fish is also classified into 2 categories • Lean • Fat Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  5. Classification • The fish and shellfish used in the foodservice industry can be divided into 3 categories: • Fish: • Mollusks • Crustaceans Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  6. Fish • Round Fish • Swims in a vertical position • Eyes on both sides of their head • Truly round • Flat fish • Bottom dwellers • Found in deep ocean waters • Both eyes on top side of body • Scales are small • Dorsal and anal fins run the length of their bodies Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  7. Bone Structure Bone structure of a round fish Bone structure of a flatfish Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  8. Mollusks • Mollusks • Mollusks are characterized by a soft un-segmented body with no internal skeleton • Most mollusks have hard shells • Three types: • Univalves (one shell) • Bivalves (two shells) • Cephalopods: (pen or cattlebone) Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  9. Crustaceans • Crustaceans • Have a hard outer skeleton or shell • Jointed appendages • Includes lobster, crab and shrimp Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  10. Bass Catfish Sardines Cod Mackerel Atlantic cod Mahi-mahi Pollock Red snapper Eels Black sea bass Grouper Striped bass Herring Haddock Monkfish Pacific cod Orange rougheye Round Fish Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  11. Salmon Atlantic salmon Chinook or king salmon Coho or silver salmon Sea Bream Sharks Swordfish Tilapia Trout Tuna Wahoo Whitefish Round Fish Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  12. Catfish Striped Bass Monkfish Mahi-mahi Round Fish Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  13. Pollock Grouper Mackerel Sardines Round Fish Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  14. Round Fish Atlantic Salmon Chinook or King Salmon Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  15. Flat fish • Flounder • English sole • Petrale sole • Domestic Dover sole • Halibut • Turbot Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  16. Lemon Sole Petrale Sole English Sole True Dover Sole Flat fish Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  17. Alaskan Halibut Turbot Flat fish Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  18. Abalone ShellfishUnivalves • Abalone • Conch Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  19. ShellfishBivalves • Clams • Atlantic hard-shell clams or quahogs • Soft-shelled clams • Surf clams • Pacific clams Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  20. ShellfishBivalves (cont’d) • Scallops • Sea (cold water – largest) • Bay (cold water, average 70 to 90 count) • Calico (cold water, average 70 to 110 count) Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  21. ShellfishBivalves Greenshell Mussels • Cockles • Mussels • Blue mussels • Greenshell mussels Blue Mussels Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  22. ShellfishBivalves (cont’d) • Oysters • Atlantic oysters • Olympias • Pacific oysters • European flat oysters Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  23. Oysters Olympias European Flat Oysters Hamma-Hamma Bluepoint Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  24. Octopus Squid ShellfishCephalopods • Octopus • Squid Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  25. ShellfishCrustaceans • Crayfish • Crabs • King crabs • Dungeness crabs • Blue crabs • Snow or spider crabs • Stone crabs Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  26. Crabs Blue Crab King Crab Legs Dungeness Crab Snow Crab Legs Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  27. ShellfishCrustaceans • Lobsters • Maine lobsters • Spiny lobsters • Slipper lobsters • Langoustine • Shrimp • Prawn Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  28. ShellfishCrustaceans Shrimp Maine Lobster Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  29. Fish and Shellfish • Nutrition • Low in calories, fat and sodium • High in protein and vitamins A, B and D • Fish are high in a group of polyunsaturated fatty acids called Omega-3 • Inspections and Grading • C.F.I.A. is the only approval granting agency under federal regulations • Approved facilities must adhere to a HACCP program • No grading protocol exists in Canada. Buying must rely on the integrity of the supplier Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  30. Inspection • C.F.I.A. mark and statement Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  31. Freshness • Fish and shellfish are highly perishable • Fish and shellfish must be kept cold at all times • Checking Freshness: • Smell – Eyes • Gills – Fins • Texture – Scales • Appearance – Movement Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  32. Whole or round Drawn Dressed Pan-dressed Wheel or centre-cut Steak or darne Fillet Butterflied Goujonnette Paupiette Fish-Market Forms Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  33. Cutting a Fillet Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  34. Cutting Steaks from Salmon Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  35. Storage • Most important concern with storage is temperature • All fresh fish should be stored at; -1 to +1°C (30 to 34°F) • Store on ice • Store bivalves in shipping packages at 4°C (40°F) in high-humidity environment • Can keep crustaceans in salt-water tanks Gilbert Noussitou 2010

  36. Applying Various Cooking Methods • Dry heat • Broiling and grilling, baking, sautéing, pan-frying • Moist heat • Steaming: • “en papillote” • Poaching: • “deep poaching” (court-bouillon) • “shallow poaching” (white wine, fumet etc.) • Simmering Gilbert Noussitou 2010