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FISH & SHELLFISH. Classifications (types & structures) Nutritive value Selection and storage Preparation Cooking. Textbook Pg 113-117. Structures of Fishes. Less connective tissues than meat & no elastin Not tough as muscle fibres are short & held together by connective tissues

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fish shellfish
  • Classifications (types & structures)
  • Nutritive value
  • Selection and storage
  • Preparation
  • Cooking

Textbook Pg 113-117

structures of fishes
Structures of Fishes
  • Less connective tissues than meat & no elastin
  • Not tough as muscle fibres are short & held together by connective tissues
  • Hence, fish is more digestible than meat


Saltwater fish - more distinctive flavors than freshwater fish

Oily fish - more flvaour than the white lean varieties

composition and nutritive value
Composition and Nutritive value


Fish protein has a high biological value

as that of land animals; 18-20% of protein.

white fish  10% with energy value 50-80 Kcal/100g

Roe  30% protein.

Mollusks  15%.

Fish meal & fish flour - excellent nutrient content, prepared from small whole fish for animal feeds while some are added into human foods such as cereals, bread and noodles.



Lean fish - less than 1% of fat

Oily fish - 8-15% fat, hence higher energy value 80-160 kcal/100g

Shellfish - little fat & energy value 50kcal, high cholesterol esp

lobsters and crabs, cuttlefish and moderately high in prawns


Fish -Vit A and D in oily fish. Why?

-some vit. B groups e.g. thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinic acid (present in small amounts)

Shellfish – Vit. A content is good in some shellfish. B groups vitamins are present in all shellfish


MineralFish -good source of phosphorus -good source of calcium when eaten with bonesShell Fish - calcium, iron and iodine - e.g. cockles are esp. rich in iron & iodine


Fish - white fish  80%

- Oily fish  67%

Shellfish – high water content

Oysters are the richest food source for zinc

fish and seafoods
Fish and seafoods
  • white fish-
    • < 1% fat
    • eg cod, halibut, pomfret (ikan bawal), red snapper (ikan merah), threadfin (ikan kurau)
  • Intermediate-
    • 2-10% fat
    • eg trout
  • Fat fish-
    • 10-25% fat
    • eg herrings, salmon, sardines, mackerel, tuna
    • vit. A & D disperse through out fat and liver

Selection and storage

Fresh finfish- firm fins & body, tight scales, gills are red & eyes are bright and not sunken. Pressure on the body does not leave an indentation, except frozen/ thawed. Body not slimy and does not have an unpleasant stale smell.

Storage- Fresh fish should be kept in freezer

Mollusks should be refrigerated in containers covered loosely with a clean damp cloth.

preparing fish for cooking
Preparing Fish for Cooking
  • Cook fish while it is fresh
  • Fish should be cleaned, washed & put in polythene bag before placed in freezer (should be eaten within a few days)
  • Once thawed, should not be frozen again

Preparing Shellfish for Cooking

  • Cook shellfish while it is fresh
  • Scrub clean any hard outer shell or remove shell
  • Scrub clean shellfish such as cockles & mussels & soak them in water (add little salt)

Thaw fish over night in the refrigerator

Fish are less tasty than meat. Good cooks uses a variety of

sauces, garnishes, herbs and spices to make fish interesting

and appetizing.

Cooking methods used depend on whether fish is oily or white.

Oily fish grilled, baked or pan-fried so that natural flavour is conserved

White fish  deep fried so that it will tastes better

Shellfish- moist-heat generally satisfactory.

Lobsters- parboiled in salted water, over done

toughens the meat

cooking fish
Cooking Fish
  • Retention of forms- if cooked in water, tie fish in cheesecloth
  • Small fish- frying, curry fish- should use bigger fish & less bones
  • Moist heat  steaming, boiling

 soluble proteins & extractives are lost to the liquid, fish tends to be tasteless

 therefore usually eaten with a sauce, which may be made from the liquid the fish is cooked in to prevent wastage of soluble nutrients

  • Dry heat  grilling, baking, pan-frying
          • Some shrinkage occurs as protein coagulate
          • As fish shrinks, water evaporates from surface & leaves behind deposit of flavoring matter & mineral salts, hence makes surface of fish tasty
          • This method conserves flavor & nutritive value
cooking shellfish
Cooking Shellfish
  • Little time needed
  • Preferably, they should be cooked just before eating it
  • Cooking method: fry them quickly, steaming or quick boiling
  • Do not overcook  makes them tough & less digestible
  • Must be cooked properly  common cause of food poisoning