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Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. MBTI GUIDELINES. A person’s psychological type should be regarded as a working hypothesis. Everyone uses every preference. We favor, however, one preference over the other on each of the four scales.

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mbti guidelines
  • A person’s psychological type should be regarded as a working hypothesis.
  • Everyone uses every preference. We favor, however, one preference over the other on each of the four scales.
  • MBTI scores should not be over interpreted. High scores do not indicate greater skill, magnitude, or use of a preference. Scores indicate clarity of choice.
  • Psychological type can explain some human behavior—not all.
  • Type should not be used as an excuse for doing or not doing something. Avoid stereotyping someone on the basis of his or her type. MBTI Team Building Program
type theory
Type Theory
  • Based on the work of Carl Jung
  • Researched normal differences between healthy people
  • Jung concluded that differences in behavior result from inborn tendencies to use your mind in different ways.
  • As we act on these tendencies, we develop patterns of behavior.
type helps us to understand
Type helps us to understand…
  • Where you focus your attention and energy?
  • How you acquire or gather information?
  • How you make decisions or judgments?
  • How you relate to the outer world?
what are preferences
What are Preferences?
  • Sign your name on the line as you normally do.
  • Sign your name again, but this time use your other hand.
  • Everyone has a natural preference for one of the two opposites on each of the four MBTI continuums.
  • When we use our preferred methods we are at our best and feel most competent.
how to interpret your results
How to interpret your results?
  • Your type consists of four letters that represent your four preferences.
  • The bars on the graph illustrate the clarity of your MBTI preferences.
  • The longer bar suggests you are quite sure that you prefer that pole.
  • The shorter bar suggests that you are less sure about your preference for that pole.
extraversion introversion
Direct energy outward toward people and things

Orientation – after thinkers

Work Environment


Prefer to be around others

Many interests

Direct energy inward toward ideas and concepts

Orientation – fore thinkers

Work Environment

Quiet and concentrated

Prefer to be alone

Interests have depth

sensing intuition
Focus on five senses(experience)

Details, practicality, reality

Work Environment

Prefer learned skills

Pay attention to details

Make few factual errors

Focus on the possibilities(sixth sense)

Patterns and expectations

Work Environment

Prefer adding new skills

Looks at the big picture

Patient with complexity

thinking feeling
Focus – logic of a situation, truth and principles

Work Environment – brief and businesslike

Contributions – intellectual criticism, solutions to problems

Focus – human values and needs, people and harmony

Work Environment – friendly and personal

Contributions – loyal support, care and concern for others

judging perception
Attitude – decisive, planful, self-regimented, purposeful

Work Environment – focus on completing tasks, makes decisions quickly

Attitude – curious, spontaneous, flexible, adaptable, tolerant

Work Environment – focus on starting tasks, postpones decisions

review your type summary on the third page
Review your Type Summary on the Third Page
  • As you read, underline anything that seems to “ring true” about you.
  • After reviewing the whole page, turn to another student nearby and take turns sharing what information from the summary statement seems accurate about you
  • Take turns sharing your reaction and give examples to support your statements
type in college
Type in College
  • Make the best of your college experience by understanding your type.
  • Choosing a Major
    • People are most attracted to careers that provide them the opportunity to express their preferences.
  • Learning Styles
    • Identify learning styles consistent with your preferences.
    • Each type has a different style that works best for them.
type in college1
Type in College
  • Reading, Writing and Studying
    • Students of each type have unique ways of approaching the writing process.
    • Use type to help you understand your preferred style of writing.
  • Playing
    • Type helps you understand your preferences for forming social relationships, getting along with roommates and participating in student groups.
  • Handling Stress
    • Type helps you understand how you typically deal with stress.
type and careers
Type and Careers
  • Summary designed to help you explore career options
  • Focus on the exploration process instead of the selection process
  • Consider type in past and future activities
  • Consider the strengths and challenges associated with each type
  • Consider the relationship between your personality preferences and possible careers
the functions lens
The Functions Lens
  • Combination of Perceiving (Sensing and Intuition) and Judging (Thinking and Feeling) are a central aspect of type
  • Brock’s research on selling and influencing demonstrated that the four functions are most closely related to communication skills
  • Extraversion and Introversion are important in establishing communication
  • Judging and Perceiving are needed to bring communication to a close
type and communication
Type and Communication
  • In the area of communication, what a person perceives, as well as the way he or she organizes that information, impacts communication
  • The columns of the type table represent the four different ways of accessing information about the world and making decisions about the information
st function
ST Function
  • Pay attention to details and the reality of any given situation
  • Focus on the past and the present and are often characterized by a serious, no nonsense demeanor
  • Communication to others is often about costs, schedules and other basic facts
sf function
SF Function
  • Pay attention to facts and details of a situation and organize this concrete information according to the values they hold and the importance the info has for themselves and others
  • Focus on the immediate past and current needs of each person in their care
  • Often characterized by a friendly demeanor
  • Communication is based on their own and others’ needs
nf function
NF Function
  • Pay attention to insights and to what could be done instead of what is. Like to discuss values and relationships
  • Concerned about the future and how people’s goals and aspirations can be achieved
  • Characterized by an inspirational demeanor
  • Organize their communication by paying attention to what people in general value
  • Communicate easily with others about team, community, and organizational needs & values
nt function
NT Function
  • Focus on relationships between theories and structures and organize this info by logical analysis of cause and effect
  • Focus on the future
  • Often characterized by an analytical, quizzical demeanor
  • Communicate with others about strategies, visions, and potentials
  • ST often overlook people’s values and the “big picture”
  • SF may overlook the logical specifications of a situation and future implications
  • NF are likely to overlook logical implications and the current realities of the situation
  • NT often overlook people’s values and the present reality
group discussion
Group Discussion
  • Do the Functions descriptions fit with team member’s experiences?
  • Please share examples with one another
type differences in close relationships e vs i
Extraverts Need:

Sufficient external stimulation

Reach decisions by talking them out and getting feedback

May experience I’s style as excluding them and robbing them of mutual sharing

Introverts Need:

Sufficient “alone time”

Reach decisions by processing them internally and sharing final decision

May experience E’s style as intrusive and controlling

Type Differences in Close Relationships (E vs. I)
type differences in close relationships s vs n
Sensing partners with strong grounding in reality can make Intuitive partners feel impractical and unobservant

Intuitive partners with rapid insights can make Sensing partners feel slow and mundane

Type Differences in Close Relationships (S vs. N)
type differences in close relationships t vs f
Thinking favors an objective , logical approach to arrive at truth

Can become irritated when Feeling type appears to ignore the logic of a situation

Feeling favors a subjective, personal approach that arrives at harmony

Can feel hurt when Thinking type appears to be cold, uncaring, and hypercritical

Type Differences in Close Relationships (T vs. F)
differences in thinking and feeling are prone to gender stereotyping
Differences in Thinking and Feeling are Prone to Gender Stereotyping
  • Thinking is often confused with intellectual competence and lack of emotion
  • Feeling is often confused with intellectual fuzziness and excessive emotionality
  • Thinking is often perceived as the province of males and Feeling for females
  • Thinking-Feeling differences are often seen as gender differences (e.g., Thinking women may see Feeling men as unmasculine and Feeling men may perceive Thinking women as unfeminine)
thinking types can improve relationships with feeling types by
Thinking Types can Improve Relationships with Feeling Types by:
  • Voicing appreciation before giving criticism
  • Making critical comments only when necessary rather than as a natural, automatic response to the partner and the world
feeling types can improve relationships with thinking types by
Feeling Types can Improve Relationships with Thinking Types by:
  • Stating their wishes clearly so that the Thinking type does not have to guess about their needs and desires
  • Learning to differentiate between intended critical assessments that sound like personal criticism but are merely impersonal observations from the viewpoint of their Thinking partner
type differences in close relationships j vs p
Judging partner likely to value order and predictability in his or her surroundings

More likely to value careful planning

Like closure and concrete plans (vacations)

Perceiving partner more likely to value spontaneity and freedom

More likely to value “flying by the seat of their pants”

Like weighing all the options (furniture)

Type Differences in Close Relationships (J vs. P)
type and work environments

Like variety and action

Tend to be faster, dislike complicated procedures (ES)

Good “greeters” (EF)

Impatient with long, slow jobs done alone


Like quiet for concentration

Careful with details (IS)

Trouble with names & faces (IT)

Can work for long periods of time on a project without interruptions

Type and Work Environments
type and work environments1

Interested in activities of their job, getting it done, and how others do it

Do not mind telephone (EF)

Act quickly, sometimes without thinking it through

Like people around (EF)

Communicate freely (EF)


Interested in details & ideas behind job

Dislike telephone (IT)

Think before acting, sometimes without acting

Work alone (IT)

“In their heads” (IT)

Type and Work Environments
type and work environments2

Focus on here and now and reality

Standard ways of solving problems

Preferred established order for doing things (SJ)

Preferring using and perfecting learned skills

Steady workers with realistic assessment of time (ISJ)


Focus on future and what might be

Solving problems in new ways

Dislike routine (NP)

Enjoy learning new skill more than using it

Bursts of energy with slack times (ENP)

Type and Work Environments
type and work environments3

Reach a conclusion step by step (ISJ)

Patient with details (ISJ)

Impatient when situations get complicated (ES)

Not often inspired, mistrust inspiration

Seldom make factual errors

Good at precise work (IS)

Create new by adapting old


Reach an understanding quickly (ENP)

Impatient with routine details (ENP)

Patient with complex situations (IN)

Follow inspirations regardless of data

Make errors of fact, preferring big picture

Dislike precision (time)

Create something new with personal insight

Type and Work Environments
type and work environments4

Like analysis and ordering

Can get along without harmony

Tend to be firm minded

Do not show emotion readily and often uncomfortable with others’ feelings

May hurt others’ feelings without knowing it

Decide impersonally, sometimes insufficient attention to others’ wishes


Like harmony

Office feud by impair efficiency

Tend to be sympathetic

Aware of other people and their feelings (EF)

Enjoy pleasing others

Allow decisions to be influenced by likes and dislikes

Type and Work Environments
type and work environments5

Need to be treated fairly in accordance with prevailing standards

Able to reprimand people impersonally, though they may not like doing so

More analytically-oriented, respond best to others’ thoughts (IT)


Need praise and attention

Dislike, even avoid unpleasant encounters

More people oriented, respond more easily to others values

Type and Work Environments
type and work environments6

Work best when they plan work and follow plan

Like to get things settled

May decide too quickly (EJ)

Dislike interrupting project for more urgent one (ISJ)


Adapt well to changing situations

Prefer leaving things open for alterations

May postpone decisions (IP)

May start too many projects and have difficulty finishing them (ENP)

Type and Work Environments
type and work environments7

May not notice new things that need to be done while completing what they are doing

Want only the essentials needed to begin their work (ESJ)

Satisfied once they reach a judgment on a thing, situation, or person


May postpone unpleasant jobs while finding other things more interesting in the moment

Want to know all about a new job (INP)

Curious and welcome a new light on a thing, situation, or person

Type and Work Environments
what types are attracted to business school
What types are attracted to Business School?
  • Managers of all types learn to value managerial culture (STJ) “practical and results oriented”
  • Among MBA students, ESTJ and ISTJ are modal types, as expected
  • NTJs are more are attracted to MBA programs than STJs given their numbers in the base population
which types are drawn to small business ownership
Which types are drawn to small business ownership?
  • ISTJ and ESTJ are modal types and overrepresented among small business owners
  • INTJ and ENTJ are also more attracted to ownership than their proportion in the population
  • Small business owners usually did not have MBA degrees
  • MBAs usually work in large organizations
type and roles on team
Type and Roles on Team
  • Read over the last page of your packet
  • Mark on post it pads
  • How have these roles played out in your work with teams?
  • What do you value about your own type’s leadership style?
  • What does your type do as leaders that annoy people of different functions?
  • What does your type opposite do that annoys you?
  • What do you value about your type opposite?
career exploration process think of a puzzle
Career Exploration ProcessThink of a puzzle!
  • Internal Factors
    • Personality preferences (MBTI)
    • Interests
    • Values
    • Skills and Abilities
career exploration process
Career Exploration Process
  • External Factors
    • Job market
    • Economy
    • Job Requirements
    • Educational Requirements
    • Salary Range
myers briggs type indicator1
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
  • Helps you identify your unique gifts
  • Helps you understand yourself
    • Motivations
    • Natural strengths
    • Potential areas for growth
  • Helps you understand and appreciate people who differ from you
  • Helps you make the best of your college experience
  • Helps you begin the career exploration process