MBTI GUIDELINES • A person’s psychological type should be regarded as a working hypothesis. • Everyone uses every preference. We favor, however, one preference over the other on each of the four scales. • MBTI scores should not be over interpreted. High scores do not indicate greater skill, magnitude, or use of a preference. Scores indicate clarity of choice. • Psychological type can explain some human behavior—not all. • Type should not be used as an excuse for doing or not doing something. Avoid stereotyping someone on the basis of his or her type. MBTI Team Building Program
Type Theory • Based on the work of Carl Jung • Researched normal differences between healthy people • Jung concluded that differences in behavior result from inborn tendencies to use your mind in different ways. • As we act on these tendencies, we develop patterns of behavior.
Type helps us to understand… • Where you focus your attention and energy? • How you acquire or gather information? • How you make decisions or judgments? • How you relate to the outer world?
What are Preferences? • Sign your name on the line as you normally do. • Sign your name again, but this time use your other hand. • Everyone has a natural preference for one of the two opposites on each of the four MBTI continuums. • When we use our preferred methods we are at our best and feel most competent.
How to interpret your results? • Your type consists of four letters that represent your four preferences. • The bars on the graph illustrate the clarity of your MBTI preferences. • The longer bar suggests you are quite sure that you prefer that pole. • The shorter bar suggests that you are less sure about your preference for that pole.
Direct energy outward toward people and things Orientation – after thinkers Work Environment Action-oriented Prefer to be around others Many interests Direct energy inward toward ideas and concepts Orientation – fore thinkers Work Environment Quiet and concentrated Prefer to be alone Interests have depth EXTRAVERSION INTROVERSION
Focus on five senses(experience) Details, practicality, reality Work Environment Prefer learned skills Pay attention to details Make few factual errors Focus on the possibilities(sixth sense) Patterns and expectations Work Environment Prefer adding new skills Looks at the big picture Patient with complexity SENSING INTUITION
Focus – logic of a situation, truth and principles Work Environment – brief and businesslike Contributions – intellectual criticism, solutions to problems Focus – human values and needs, people and harmony Work Environment – friendly and personal Contributions – loyal support, care and concern for others THINKING FEELING
Attitude – decisive, planful, self-regimented, purposeful Work Environment – focus on completing tasks, makes decisions quickly Attitude – curious, spontaneous, flexible, adaptable, tolerant Work Environment – focus on starting tasks, postpones decisions JUDGING PERCEPTION
Review your Type Summary on the Third Page • As you read, underline anything that seems to “ring true” about you. • After reviewing the whole page, turn to another student nearby and take turns sharing what information from the summary statement seems accurate about you • Take turns sharing your reaction and give examples to support your statements
Type in College • Make the best of your college experience by understanding your type. • Choosing a Major • People are most attracted to careers that provide them the opportunity to express their preferences. • Learning Styles • Identify learning styles consistent with your preferences. • Each type has a different style that works best for them.
Type in College • Reading, Writing and Studying • Students of each type have unique ways of approaching the writing process. • Use type to help you understand your preferred style of writing. • Playing • Type helps you understand your preferences for forming social relationships, getting along with roommates and participating in student groups. • Handling Stress • Type helps you understand how you typically deal with stress.
Type and Careers • Summary designed to help you explore career options • Focus on the exploration process instead of the selection process • Consider type in past and future activities • Consider the strengths and challenges associated with each type • Consider the relationship between your personality preferences and possible careers
The Functions Lens • Combination of Perceiving (Sensing and Intuition) and Judging (Thinking and Feeling) are a central aspect of type • Brock’s research on selling and influencing demonstrated that the four functions are most closely related to communication skills • Extraversion and Introversion are important in establishing communication • Judging and Perceiving are needed to bring communication to a close
Type and Communication • In the area of communication, what a person perceives, as well as the way he or she organizes that information, impacts communication • The columns of the type table represent the four different ways of accessing information about the world and making decisions about the information
ST Function • Pay attention to details and the reality of any given situation • Focus on the past and the present and are often characterized by a serious, no nonsense demeanor • Communication to others is often about costs, schedules and other basic facts
SF Function • Pay attention to facts and details of a situation and organize this concrete information according to the values they hold and the importance the info has for themselves and others • Focus on the immediate past and current needs of each person in their care • Often characterized by a friendly demeanor • Communication is based on their own and others’ needs
NF Function • Pay attention to insights and to what could be done instead of what is. Like to discuss values and relationships • Concerned about the future and how people’s goals and aspirations can be achieved • Characterized by an inspirational demeanor • Organize their communication by paying attention to what people in general value • Communicate easily with others about team, community, and organizational needs & values
NT Function • Focus on relationships between theories and structures and organize this info by logical analysis of cause and effect • Focus on the future • Often characterized by an analytical, quizzical demeanor • Communicate with others about strategies, visions, and potentials
Challenges • ST often overlook people’s values and the “big picture” • SF may overlook the logical specifications of a situation and future implications • NF are likely to overlook logical implications and the current realities of the situation • NT often overlook people’s values and the present reality
Group Discussion • Do the Functions descriptions fit with team member’s experiences? • Please share examples with one another
Extraverts Need: Sufficient external stimulation Reach decisions by talking them out and getting feedback May experience I’s style as excluding them and robbing them of mutual sharing Introverts Need: Sufficient “alone time” Reach decisions by processing them internally and sharing final decision May experience E’s style as intrusive and controlling Type Differences in Close Relationships (E vs. I)
Sensing partners with strong grounding in reality can make Intuitive partners feel impractical and unobservant Intuitive partners with rapid insights can make Sensing partners feel slow and mundane Type Differences in Close Relationships (S vs. N)
Thinking favors an objective , logical approach to arrive at truth Can become irritated when Feeling type appears to ignore the logic of a situation Feeling favors a subjective, personal approach that arrives at harmony Can feel hurt when Thinking type appears to be cold, uncaring, and hypercritical Type Differences in Close Relationships (T vs. F)
Differences in Thinking and Feeling are Prone to Gender Stereotyping • Thinking is often confused with intellectual competence and lack of emotion • Feeling is often confused with intellectual fuzziness and excessive emotionality • Thinking is often perceived as the province of males and Feeling for females • Thinking-Feeling differences are often seen as gender differences (e.g., Thinking women may see Feeling men as unmasculine and Feeling men may perceive Thinking women as unfeminine)
Thinking Types can Improve Relationships with Feeling Types by: • Voicing appreciation before giving criticism • Making critical comments only when necessary rather than as a natural, automatic response to the partner and the world
Feeling Types can Improve Relationships with Thinking Types by: • Stating their wishes clearly so that the Thinking type does not have to guess about their needs and desires • Learning to differentiate between intended critical assessments that sound like personal criticism but are merely impersonal observations from the viewpoint of their Thinking partner
Judging partner likely to value order and predictability in his or her surroundings More likely to value careful planning Like closure and concrete plans (vacations) Perceiving partner more likely to value spontaneity and freedom More likely to value “flying by the seat of their pants” Like weighing all the options (furniture) Type Differences in Close Relationships (J vs. P)
Extraverts.. Like variety and action Tend to be faster, dislike complicated procedures (ES) Good “greeters” (EF) Impatient with long, slow jobs done alone Introverts Like quiet for concentration Careful with details (IS) Trouble with names & faces (IT) Can work for long periods of time on a project without interruptions Type and Work Environments
Extraverts.. Interested in activities of their job, getting it done, and how others do it Do not mind telephone (EF) Act quickly, sometimes without thinking it through Like people around (EF) Communicate freely (EF) Introverts.. Interested in details & ideas behind job Dislike telephone (IT) Think before acting, sometimes without acting Work alone (IT) “In their heads” (IT) Type and Work Environments
Sensing.. Focus on here and now and reality Standard ways of solving problems Preferred established order for doing things (SJ) Preferring using and perfecting learned skills Steady workers with realistic assessment of time (ISJ) Intuitive.. Focus on future and what might be Solving problems in new ways Dislike routine (NP) Enjoy learning new skill more than using it Bursts of energy with slack times (ENP) Type and Work Environments
Sensing.. Reach a conclusion step by step (ISJ) Patient with details (ISJ) Impatient when situations get complicated (ES) Not often inspired, mistrust inspiration Seldom make factual errors Good at precise work (IS) Create new by adapting old Intuitive.. Reach an understanding quickly (ENP) Impatient with routine details (ENP) Patient with complex situations (IN) Follow inspirations regardless of data Make errors of fact, preferring big picture Dislike precision (time) Create something new with personal insight Type and Work Environments
Thinking.. Like analysis and ordering Can get along without harmony Tend to be firm minded Do not show emotion readily and often uncomfortable with others’ feelings May hurt others’ feelings without knowing it Decide impersonally, sometimes insufficient attention to others’ wishes Feeling.. Like harmony Office feud by impair efficiency Tend to be sympathetic Aware of other people and their feelings (EF) Enjoy pleasing others Allow decisions to be influenced by likes and dislikes Type and Work Environments
Thinking.. Need to be treated fairly in accordance with prevailing standards Able to reprimand people impersonally, though they may not like doing so More analytically-oriented, respond best to others’ thoughts (IT) Feeling.. Need praise and attention Dislike, even avoid unpleasant encounters More people oriented, respond more easily to others values Type and Work Environments
Judging.. Work best when they plan work and follow plan Like to get things settled May decide too quickly (EJ) Dislike interrupting project for more urgent one (ISJ) Perceiving.. Adapt well to changing situations Prefer leaving things open for alterations May postpone decisions (IP) May start too many projects and have difficulty finishing them (ENP) Type and Work Environments
Judging.. May not notice new things that need to be done while completing what they are doing Want only the essentials needed to begin their work (ESJ) Satisfied once they reach a judgment on a thing, situation, or person Perceiving.. May postpone unpleasant jobs while finding other things more interesting in the moment Want to know all about a new job (INP) Curious and welcome a new light on a thing, situation, or person Type and Work Environments
What types are attracted to Business School? • Managers of all types learn to value managerial culture (STJ) “practical and results oriented” • Among MBA students, ESTJ and ISTJ are modal types, as expected • NTJs are more are attracted to MBA programs than STJs given their numbers in the base population
Which types are drawn to small business ownership? • ISTJ and ESTJ are modal types and overrepresented among small business owners • INTJ and ENTJ are also more attracted to ownership than their proportion in the population • Small business owners usually did not have MBA degrees • MBAs usually work in large organizations
Type and Roles on Team • Read over the last page of your packet • Mark on post it pads • How have these roles played out in your work with teams? • What do you value about your own type’s leadership style? • What does your type do as leaders that annoy people of different functions? • What does your type opposite do that annoys you? • What do you value about your type opposite?