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Data Analysis . Open Coding Procedure Corbin , J. M., & Strauss, A. L. (2008). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory . Sage Publications, Inc. Open Coding Defined. When researchers use open coding to analyze their data, they. ..

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data analysis

Data Analysis

Open Coding Procedure

Corbin, J. M., & Strauss, A. L. (2008). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Sage Publications, Inc.

open coding defined
Open Coding Defined

When researchers use open coding to analyze their data, they...

1. Name Data by Labeling Phenomena discovered in the data that is Conceptualized when it is broken down from Artifacts such as artwork, products from lessons, Student Generated Representations (SGR), and written work; or Audio Clips obtained from a formal interview, an informal conversation or informal recording; or from Observationsthat can be obtained from a face-to-face encounter, or video.

open coding defined1
Open Coding Defined

When researchers use open coding to analyze their data, they...

2. TranscribeAudio Clips and Observationsinto words that can be analyzed line by line by closely examining each word, phrase, or sentence. They can analyze data by paragraph or by the entire document.

open coding defined2
Open Coding Defined

When researchers use open coding to analyze their data, they...

3. Begin labeling phenomena when they ask questions such as:

"What does this phenomena represent?" OR

"What is this phenomena that I am seeing?"

open coding defined3
Open Coding Defined

When researchers use open coding to analyze their data, they...

4. Discover that the answers to their questions leads to making comparisons between phenomena.

open coding defined4
Open Coding Defined

When researchers use open coding to analyze their data, they...

5. Begin to name similar phenomena using a process called Categorizing Data.

open coding defined5
Open Coding Defined

When researchers use open coding to analyze their data, they...

6. Begin to categorize data when they identify properties of a phenomena that have certain attributes or characteristics which can be dimensionalized along a continua.

open coding defined6
Open Coding Defined

When researchers use open coding to analyze their data, they...

7. Develop the names of the categories from the participants, called "in vivo" codes, or from the literature or by the researchers.

open coding process
Open Coding Process

1. Account for all of your data

a. Backup all digital data by putting it on an external hard drive

b. Place all artifact data into a container (e.g. box) or digitize it (take pictures – see example below)

c. Make copies of all field notes

2. Transcribe all audio and video data

open coding example
Open Coding Example
  • In this section, I will provide you with a single analysis of student generated artifacts and the steps I took to arrive at one claim about the data. Note: This is only my interpretation, remember, Ely(1991) said it is the researcher’s job to interpret their own data.
  • In this open coding example, I will :
  • Provide background information about the data
  • Name and label phenomena conceptualized from the data because I asked questions about the data
  • Compare phenomena in the data
  • Name similar phenomena
  • Use the names to categorize the data with similar, dimensionalized properties
  • Make one claim about the data
step 1 b ackground information about the data
Step #1: Background information about the data
  • Participants in this study were:
    • interviewed with a standard set of questions about what they notice that makes day different from night.
    • asked to write an explanation on how day turns into night.
    • asked to draw a picture that shows their understanding of day turning into night with as much detail as they could provide. (Bonnie, 2013)
step 2 layout the data
Step #2: Layout the Data
  • Since this was a small sample size, I was able to spread out the data in Inspiration. I did this so I could see phenomena and similarities in the data.
step 3 label phenomena in all the data
Step #3: Label Phenomena in all the data
  • Label all the phenomena discovered in all the data by asking two questions:
    • "What is this phenomena that I am seeing?”
    • "What does this phenomena represent?”
step 4 compare phenomena to find similarities
Step #4: Compare Phenomena to find similarities
  • Compare the phenomena discovered in all the data
  • In this example, 4 out of the 6 1st graders showed a downward movement of the sun.
step 5 name similar phenomena
Step #5: Name Similar Phenomena
  • When you name similar data, you begin to make a category. The phenomena labeled below were: downward, upward, rotation and turning. These are all forms of MOVEMENT.
step 6 make a claim
Step #6: Make a Claim
  • Assertion #1: All the participants drew a picture that shows a celestial body moving. The movements included: downward, upward, turning and rotating.
step 7 continue open coding
Step #7: Continue Open Coding
  • Once you can make a claim about the data, continue open coding until you, the researcher, feel that you have analyzed the data so that you can answer your research question.
  • There is not a magic formula to know when to stop coding!