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Data analysis Use of computers
Computers • Increasing power • Decreasing costs • Miniaturization
Mainframes • IBM, VAX, Univac, decsystems • Access through hardwired terminals or telephone lines • Wireless • Timesharing, interactive or batch • Access to internet
PCs • Stand alone computers • May be networked to a mainframe, or access to a mainframe through a telephone line • Increasingly small and powerful • IBMs and their “clones”, Apples/MacIntoshes
Software • Instructions to the computer • Word processing (WORD), spreadsheets (Excel), databases (Access) • Statistics: SPSS, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences • Data file and program file that defines the data
Data • Coding data—assignment of numbers to values of the variable • Codebook: identifies where each variable is located and the possible values for that variable