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Alcohol & drugs. Effects & Risks to Your Health. STUDENT eXPECTATIONS. After reviewing this Unit, you should be able to: Identify Alcohol’s pathway once ingested Identify the harmful effects & risks of Alcohol on the body

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alcohol drugs

Alcohol & drugs

Effects & Risks to Your Health

student expectations

After reviewing this Unit, you should be able to:

  • Identify Alcohol’s pathway once ingested
  • Identify the harmful effects & risks of Alcohol on the body
  • Define Blood Alcohol Concentration & factors that determine a person’s BAC
  • Identify the differences between medicines & drugs
  • Identify the differences between drug misuse & abuse
  • Identify the categories of drugs, effects, & risks on the body
alcohol pre test answers
Alcohol pre-test Answers
  • TRUE – based on percentage of alcohol by volume
  • FALSE – Alcohol is digested by different organs in the body
  • FALSE – Alcohol is a Depressant (slows body down)
  • TRUE
  • TRUE – 5 oz. wine, 1.5 oz. shot of liquor, or 12 oz. can of beer
  • FALSE – BAC/BAL stands for how much alcohol is in the bloodstream
  • FALSE – only way to eliminate alcohol is through urine, sweat, or liver
  • TRUE – depends on a person’s BAC & other factors
  • TRUE –
  • TRUE
alcohol its process types standard drink
Alcohol: its process, types, & standard drink
  • Alcohol is referred to ethanol & is made through a process called Fermentation – a conversion of sugar to carbon dioxide and alcohol by yeast
  • Fermentation will yield certain types of alcohol such as beer, wine, and liquors (vodka)
  • A “standard” drink is any drink that contains 14 grams of pure alcohol or .6 fluid ounces

Standard Drink Equivalents:

  • Beer = 12 ounces, Wine = 4-5 ounces, Liquor (80pf) = 1.5 ounces
alcohol s pathway
Alcohol’s pathway
  • Mouth: Alcohol enters the body
  • Stomach: some alcohol gets into the bloodstream but most goes to the small intestine
  • Small Intestine: alcohol enters the bloodstream through the wall of the small intestine
  • Heart: pumps alcohol throughout the body
  • Brain: alcohol reaches the brain from the bloodstream
  • Liver: alcohol is oxidized (burned up) by the liver at a rate of .5 fluid ounces per hour
  • Alcohol is converted into water, carbon dioxide, & energy
short long term effects
Short & long-term effects


Brain – disrupts behavior, learning, & memory

Heart – blood pressure increases – heart disease, heart attack or stroke

Lungs – damage cells of lungs to remove fluids (choking), reduces immune response

Liver – organ responsible for filtering alcohol from the bloodstream

- Cirrhosis = scarring of liver tissue

- Cancer


  • Relaxing effect
  • Slurred speech
  • Slowed reaction time, coordination, & concentration ,& vision
  • Altered emotions
  • More blood flow to surface of skin & lower core body temperature
blood alcohol concentration bac
Blood Alcohol concentration (bac)
  • Ratio of Alcohol to Blood in the body (%)
  • 5 Factors that influence a person’s BAC
  • Gender- stronger effect on females
  • Body Weight- A heavy weight results in more fluids to mix w/alcohol resulting in a lower BAC
  • Strength & Size of Drink- Stronger alcohol content consumed, higher BAC will rise & larger drinks contain more alcohol
  • Food- possible to slow rate in which alcohol is absorbed
  • Time- faster a person drinks, quicker their BAC will rise
bac level
BAC Level

.01 BAC Level

  • Illegal for a person 16-20 years of age to drive a vehicle
  • All drivers under 21 who commit a DUI can be subject to a 6 month driver’s license suspension, probation, fined, or jailed

.08 BAC Level

  • Illegal for a person 21 or older to drive a vehicle
  • Person is 11 times more likely to be involved in a fatal crash than someone who has had nothing to drink
medicine vs drugs misuse vs abuse
Medicine vs. Drugs – misuse vs. abuse

Misuse – Inappropriate use of prescribed or non-prescribed medicine, but not for “pleasure” or other non-medical purposes.

Abuse– repeatedly and willfully using a drug in a way other than prescribed or socially sanctioned

Medicine – drug(s) that are used to treat illness or relieve pain (tylenol for a headache)

2 Types:

  • OTC (over the counter) – no need for a written prescription
  • Prescription (Rx) – written order from a doctor (anitbiotics)

Drugs- chemical substances taken into the body that can change the structure or function of body/mind (increase heart rate or hallucinations)

categories of drugs
Categories of drugs


  • Heroin

- Injected, smoked, swallowed


  • Impaired coordination, slow/arrested breathing


  • Addiction, fatal overdose, hepatitis, HIV


  • Marijuana, Hashish

-Smoked, swallowed


  • Euphoria, slow reaction time, distorted sensory perception


  • Frequent respiratory infections, cough, addiction, memory loss
categories of drugs1
Categories of drugs

Club Drugs

  • MDMA (Ecstasy), Rohypnol, GHB
  • Known as Date Rape Drugs

- Swallowed, snorted, injected


  • Lowered inhibitions, sedation, muscle relaxation, confusion, memory loss


  • Impaired memory, seizures, coma, addiction & at risk to be assaulted


  • Cocaine, Amphetamine, Methamphetamines

- Inhaled, Injected, taken orally


  • Increases all body functions, i.e., heart rate, breathing rate, anxiety, psychosis


  • Cardiac complications, seizures, nasal damage, dental problems, addiction
categories of drugs2
Categories of drugs

Anabolic Steroids

  • Man-made substance related to testosterone (HGH)

- Injected, swallowed, absorbed through skin


Males – reduced sperm production, breast tissue growth (enlargement), shrunken testicles

Females – menstrual irregularities, take on male characteristics (deeper voice, hair growth)


  • LSD, mushrooms, peyote

- Swallowed, smoked


  • Increased body temp, blood pressure, heart rate, altered states of perception & feeling


  • Flashbacks (causes brain to misfire & send incorrect signals)
categories of drugs3
Categories of drugs


  • Xanax, Valium

- Swallowed, injected


  • Slows down body functions
  • Sedation, drowsiness, impaired coordination/memory


  • Decrease in blood pressure, breathing, respiratory arrest, death