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Raves, Club Drugs, and Drugs of Abuse. Dr. Milton H. Cambridge Demand Reduction Outreach and Prevention Coordinator. Raves. Early 80’s subculture in England Clandestine or commercialized Loud “techno” music/dancing Lights and visual stimuli Promoted as Alcohol Free

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raves club drugs and drugs of abuse

Raves, Club Drugs, and Drugs of Abuse

Dr. Milton H. Cambridge

Demand Reduction Outreach and Prevention Coordinator

raves
Raves
  • Early 80’s subculture in England
  • Clandestine or commercialized
  • Loud “techno” music/dancing
  • Lights and visual stimuli
  • Promoted as Alcohol Free
  • Club drugs bought, sold, consumed
  • Unique costumes or themes
environment
Environment
  • All night event
  • Clandestine – warehouses, deserts, woods, etc.
  • Commercialized – established clubs
  • Hot
  • Loud
  • Crowded
  • Dancing
  • Criminal element often present
promotions
Promotions
  • 14-25 year olds targeted group
  • Alcohol-free events
  • Appearance of not promoting drug use
  • Websites, posters, word of mouth
  • Paraphernalia – available on internet
  • Spiritual or cultural stimulation/ enhancement
    • One website “rated” the social and sexual performance, hangover, and spiritual effects of drugs – no mention of dangers
rave paraphernalia
Rave Paraphernalia
  • Water bottles
  • Light sticks
  • Pacifers
  • Bags of small candy/breath mints
  • Eye-drop bottles
  • Dust & surgical masks/Vick’s Vapo-Rub
  • Caffeinated beverages
  • OTC stimulants
dangers
Dangers
  • Dehydration
  • Hyperthermia (high body temperature)
    • Caused by drugs, heat, and dehydration
  • Drug use (intentional or unintentional)
  • Crime (sexual & physical assault, homicide, robbery, property damage, etc.)
  • Crowds
  • Hearing loss over long periods of exposure
  • Lack of compliance with safety regulations
club drugs and trend drugs
Club Drugs and Trend Drugs
  • Ecstasy
    • Ecstasy + Viagra
    • Ecstasy + Prozac
    • Ecstasy + Ketamine
    • Ecstasy + LSD
  • Methamphetamine
  • PMA
  • 4-MTA
  • GHB
  • LSD
  • Ketamine
  • Rohypnol
  • Viagra
  • Oxycodone
  • PCP
  • Heroin
  • Inhalants
  • Marijuana
  • Dextromethorphan
3 4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine
  • E, XTC, X, rolling, tachas, snackies, speedies
  • Stimulant and hallucinogenic properties
  • Effects: increased stimuli & sensations
  • Signs: euphoria, involuntary teeth grinding
  • Causes memory loss, brain damage, “Alzheimer’s”
  • OD: hyperthermia, teeth clenching, seizures, unconsciousness, heart failure, heat stroke
  • Route: ingested, snorted, injected
  • Onset/Duration: 30-60 minutes/4-6 hours
total ecstasy ed mentions
Total Ecstasy ED Mentions

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Drug Abuse Warning Network

methamphetamine
Methamphetamine
  • Speed, ice, crystal, crank, batu, christmas trees, pink, elbows, Ozs, cinnamon, blade
  • Schedule II, stimulant for ADD, narcolepsy
  • Signs: tachycardia, hypertension, hyperthermia, violent behavior
  • OD: agitation, hostility, hallucinations, seizures, hyperthermia, death
  • Chronic use causes paranoia, hallucinations, picking at the skin, violent & erratic behavior
  • Route: ingested, smoked, snorted, injected
  • Onset/Duration: depends on route/6-8 hours
slide27
Yaba
  • Methamphetamine + caffeine
  • Crazy medicine, Hitler’s drug, Nazi speed
  • Red, orange, or green small pills, most commonly with “WY” stamped on them
  • Originated in Thailand
  • Signs: tachycardia, dehydration, paranoia, sweating, insomnia, irritability, hallucinations, depression
  • Route: Oral, inhalation, injection
  • Onset/Duration: depends on route/6-8 hours
paramethoxyamphetamine
Paramethoxyamphetamine
  • PMA, 4-MA, death, Mitsubishi double stack
  • Synthetic hallucinogen
  • Signs: tachycardia, hypertension, dyspnea, hyperthermia, nystagmus, muscle spasms, visual hallucinations
  • OD: dysrhythmias, pulmonary edema, renal failure, vomiting, seizures, coma (60mg), extreme hyperthermia (>108 hours after death)
  • Onset/duration: depends on route
  • Route: ingested, inhaled, injected
  • Esp. hazardous with other amphetamines, alcohol, cocaine, prozac
4 methylthioamphetamine
4-Methylthioamphetamine
  • 4-MTA, MTA, flatliners, golden eagle
  • Resembles amphetamine, developed as an anti-depressant, releases serotonin
  • Effects: Stimulant/euphoric effects
  • Signs: restlessness, muscle twitches, involuntary muscle contractions, tremors, seizures, coma
  • Duration: up to 12 hours
  • Route: ingested
  • Unknown toxicity & side effects
  • Sold as ecstasy
methamphetamine ed mentions
Methamphetamine ED Mentions

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Drug Abuse Warning Network

amphetamines ed mentions
Amphetamines ED Mentions

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Drug Abuse Warning Network

amphetamines ed mentions per 100 000 pop
Amphetamines ED Mentionsper 100,000 pop.

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Drug Abuse Warning Network

slide35
GHB
  • Gamma Hydroxybutyrate, C4H8O3
  • Georgia Home Boy, Grievous Bodily Harm, liquid X, goop
  • Made from sodium / potassium hydrochloride & gamma-butylrolactone (GBL)
  • Signs: drowsiness, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, status seizures, respiratory depression/cheyne-stokes, coma
  • OD: unconsciousness, muscle stiffness, seizures, severe respiratory depression, coma
  • Route: ingested (liquid)
  • Onset/Duration: 10-20 minutes/2-4 hours
  • If made incorrectly, can burn mouth & esophagus
ghb gbl ed mentions
GHB/GBL ED Mentions

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Drug Abuse Warning Network

slide39
LSD
  • D-lysergic acid diethylamide
  • Acid, cid, blotter acid, “candy flipping”
  • Most powerful hallucinogen known
  • Put in gel wraps, breath fresheners, “Smartie” candies, blotters, sugar cubes
  • Signs: hallucinations, tachycardia, hypertension, dilated pupils, hyperthermia, nausea, vomiting
  • OD: exaggerated signs as above, death is rare
  • Route: ingested, snorted, injected
  • Onset/duration: 20-90 minutes/6-12 hours
lsd ed mentions
LSD ED Mentions

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Drug Abuse Warning Network

lsd ed mentions per 100 000 pop
LSD ED Mentionsper 100,000 pop.

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Drug Abuse Warning Network

ketamine hydrochloride
Ketamine Hydrochloride
  • Special K, K, Ket Kat, Cat Valium
  • Dissociative anesthetic
  • Signs: hallucinations, vomiting, hypertension, bradycardia, irrational behavior, seizures, respiratory depression, unconsciousness, hypoxia.
  • Long-term side effects of regular use unknown
  • Onset/duration: 15 sec-5 mins/30-60 mins
  • Route: Oral, snorted, injected
  • 4/21/02 – DEA seized 3,998 vials (Missouri)
ketamine ed mentions
Ketamine ED Mentions

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Drug Abuse Warning Network

flunitrazepam rohypnol
Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol)
  • Roofies, Mexican valium, roach-2, rope, rib
  • Sedative, prevents seizures (not in the U.S.)
  • Signs: “drunkenness,” unsteadiness, slurred speech, drowsiness, amnesia
  • OD: CNS depression, bradycardia, coma, death
  • Used in the commission of “date rapes”
  • Onset/duration: rapid onset/8 hours or more
  • Route: dissolved in water, alcohol, other liquids; can be snorted
sildenafil viagra
Sildenafil (Viagra®)
  • Trail mix, sextasy, hammerheading
  • Treatment of impotence
  • Used to counter sexual dysfunction caused by ecstasy
  • Dangerous with nitrates (amyl nitrate) or nitrites (heart medication)
  • >4 hours can cause anatomical damage
oxycodone oxycontin
Oxycodone (Oxycontin®)
  • Oxys, oxycotton, OCs, killer, blue, valerie, rush
  • Analgesic, equally potent as morphine
  • Effects: Euphoria
  • Signs: euphoria, pinpoint pupils, dizziness, confusion, decreased breathing and heart rate
  • OD: respiratory depression, pinpoint pupils, coma, seizures
  • Onset/duration: depends on route/8-12 hours
  • Route: snorted, ingested, injected
  • Narcan will reverse effects
oxycodone ed mentions
Oxycodone ED Mentions*

* Includes mentions for oxycodone, acetaminophen-oxycodone and aspirin-oxycodone

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Drug Abuse Warning Network

cocaine
Cocaine
  • Powder: blow, coke, snow, yao, DP, perico, p-packs
  • Crack: rock, bullets, ma’a, monkey nut, yam, CDs
  • Most powerful natural stimulant
  • Effects: Stimulant
  • Signs: dysrhythmias, chest pain, increased heart and respiratory rates, hypertension, dilated pupils, restlessness, blurred vision, dizziness, seizures
  • “Crack Lung”: chest pain, cough w/hemoptysis, dyspnea, bronchospasm, pruritis.
  • OD: hyperthermia, hallucinations, seizures, respiratory failure, death
  • Onset/duration: 4-6 secs/depends on amount
  • Route: injected, snorted, smoked
cocaine ed mentions
Cocaine ED Mentions

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Drug Abuse Warning Network

cocaine ed mentions per 100 000 pop
Cocaine ED Mentionsper 100,000 pop.

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Drug Abuse Warning Network

phenyl cyclohexyl piperidine pcp
Phenyl Cyclohexyl Piperidine (PCP)
  • Embalming fluid, rocket fuel, elephant, hog
  • Veterinary analgesic
  • Signs: delirium, violent & erratic behavior, hypertension, tachycardia, rapid & shallow breathing, sweating, flushed skin
  • OD: bizarre, violent and self-destructive behavior, feelings of invulnerability
  • Onset/duration: depends on route/4-8 hours
  • Route: injected, snorted, smoked
pcp ed mentions
PCP ED Mentions

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Drug Abuse Warning Network

pcp ed mentions per 100 000 pop
PCP ED Mentionsper 100,000 pop.

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Drug Abuse Warning Network

heroin
Heroin
  • 747, bart simpson, dinosaur, homicide, Monica Lewinski, Bin Laden, Jerry Springer
  • Developed as an alternate to morphine
  • Signs: respiratory depression, constricted pupils, nausea & vomiting, warm flushed skin, and dry mouth. User goes “on the nod”
  • OD: severe respiratory depression, apnea, coma, death
  • Onset/duration: 1 min/several hours
  • Route: ingested, injected, snorted, smoked
heroin ed mentions
Heroin ED Mentions

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Drug Abuse Warning Network

heroin ed mentions per 100 000 pop
Heroin ED Mentionsper 100,000 pop.

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Drug Abuse Warning Network

inhalants
Inhalants
  • Bagging, huffing
  • Petroleum or chemical product with strong fumes
  • Signs: euphoria followed by depression, stimulation, distortions in time & space, headache, nausea & vomiting, slurred speech, loss of motor coordination, wheezing, dyspnea
  • OD: coma, apnea, heart failure, death
  • Onset/duration: instantaneous/short duration
  • 2% of 4th and 12th graders used monthly (1998)
  • 2% of 8th graders used at least once (1999)
inhalant ed mentions
Inhalant ED Mentions

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Drug Abuse Warning Network

top 10 inhalants 1995 2002
Top 10 Inhalants 1995 – 2002

Paint (1,762), but no ED Mentions 2001, 2002

*No ED mentions 2001, 2002

+No ED mentions 2002

++No ED mentions 2001

marijuana
Marijuana
  • delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
  • Triple a, crank, schwagg, kryptonite, spliff, hydro, LG, chiefing
  • THC concentration: 1970, <1%; 2002, >6%
    • Sensamilla rose from 6%-13%; as high as 33%
  • Signs: dizziness; trouble walking; silly and giggly; red, bloodshot eyes; impaired memory; distinctive odor on clothes, hair, skin
  • Onset/duration: 3-4 minutes/2-3 hours
  • Route: smoked, eaten
marijuana ed mentions
Marijuana ED Mentions

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Drug Abuse Warning Network

marijuana ed mentions per 100 000 pop
Marijuana ED Mentionsper 100,000 pop.

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Drug Abuse Warning Network

dextromethorphan
Dextromethorphan
  • DXM, DM, Robo, Velvet, Rojo
  • Dosages: 100-1500 mg or 1.5 mg/kg – 30 mg/kg
  • Effects: hallucinations, dissociative effect
  • Signs: drowsiness, fatigue, dizziness, nystagmus, decreased LOC, hyperthermia, “drunk” and “stoned” appearance
  • OD: slurred speech, lethargy, sweating, weak pulses, hypotension, nausea/vomiting, CNS
  • Onset/duration: depends on route/6 hours
  • Route: Oral, inhaled
  • Often sold as or mistaken for ecstasy
  • Can cause false positive for PCP
  • 1,467 tablets seized in raid, Albany, NY
5 meo dipt
5-MeO-DiPT
  • 5-Methoxy-di-isopropyl-tryptamine
  • Foxy, Methoxy Foxy
  • Tryptamine hallucinogenic
  • Effects: euphoria, increased stimuli, increased sexual and emotional feelings
  • Signs: auditory hallucinations, visual distortion, jaw clenching, diarrhea, nausea, severe anxiety
  • Onset/duration: 20-60 mins/14 hours
  • Route: ingested, snorted
alpha methyltryptamine
Alpha-methyltryptamine
  • AMT, IT-290
  • Hallucinogen
  • Capsule with orange, yellow, or off-white powder
  • Effects: stimulation, mood elevation, hallucinations
  • Signs: increased energy, empathy, visual patterns, nausea, vomiting, headaches, teeth clenching, blurred vision, anxiety
  • Onset/duration: 10 secs-2 hours/14 hours
  • Route: ingested, smoked
  • Long term effects unknown
benzylpiperazine trifluromethylphenalpiperazine
Benzylpiperazine, Trifluromethylphenalpiperazine
  • BZP, legal E, Legal X, A2, often sold as ecstasy
  • Stimulant with amphetamine- and ecstasy-like properties & effects
  • Signs: tachycardia, hypertension, hyperthermia
  • Causes hallucinations, seizures, and respiratory depression at high doses
  • MSDS: dyspnea, delayed pulmonary edema, chemical burns to respiratory tract on inhalation
  • Onset/duration: depends on route/6-8 hours
  • Route: oral (tablets/pill) or smoked (freebase)
  • Labeled industrial or commercial bottles
useful websites
Useful Websites

www.monitoringthefuture.org

www.streetdrugs.org

www.treas.gov/usss

www.dea.gov

www.drugabusestatistics.samshsa.gov

www.inhalants.org

www.drugabuse.gov

www.health.org

www.nida.nih.gov

www.clubdrugs.org

www.projectghb.org

www.stopdrugs.org

www.adhl.org

www.teenchallenge.com

www.samsha.gov

www.familyawareness.org