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The Spanish-American War 1898. “The Splendid Little War”—John Hay. 1890. Naval officer Alfred T. Mahan publishes The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783,” to show that sea power was the key to a nation’s greatness.

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The spanish american war 1898

The Spanish-American War 1898

“The Splendid Little War”—John Hay

The spanish american war 1898

  • Naval officer Alfred T. Mahan publishes The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783,” to show that sea power was the key to a nation’s greatness.

  • Mahan’s views influence T. Roosevelt and others who believe the U.S. must lead in the Western Hemisphere and will need a big navy to do so.


  • Frederick Jackson Turner declares the American frontier closed based on the 1890 Census.

  • The 1893 depression crippled the U. S. economy prompting American businesses to look abroad for foreign markets.

The spanish american war 1898

  • The latest Cuban revolt against Spanish rule begins.

This photograph was taken in Cuba in 1896 at the occasion of the surrender of José Loreto, one of the Chiefs of Cuban Rebel leaders in the Province of Santa Clara. The surrender took place in a Spanish military camp at Las Cendrillas. 

The spanish american war 1898

  • Spanish General Weyler (the “Butcher”) comes to Cuba. He soon begins rounding up Cubans and putting thousands in concentration camps. He is recalled by Spain in 1897.

  • In August, a revolution against Spanish rule begins in the Philippines.

The spanish american war 1898

  • The U.S.S. Maine is sent to Cuba.

  • A few days later, the Maine explodes in Havana Harbor.

Yellow journalism
Yellow Journalism

William R. Hearst sent artist Frederic Remington to illustrate news stories of the Spanish-American War.

The spanish american war 1898

The controversial De Lôme Letter (1898).The Spanish diplomat's letter was critical of U.S. President McKinley and the prospects for peace. It was leaked to the U.S. press.

  • This letter, written by the Spanish Ambassador to the United States, Enrique Dupuy de Lôme, criticized American President William McKinley by calling him weak and concerned only with gaining the favor of the crowd. Publication of the letter helped generate public support for a war with Spain over the issue of independence for the Spanish colony of Cuba.


The spanish american war 1898

  • Assistant Secretary of the Navy T. Roosevelt cables Commodore Dewey, telling him to attack the Philippines if war with Spain breaks out.

The spanish american war 1898

Flying the signal "Follow the flag", Commodore Schley's flagship, the USS Brooklyn, leads the pack in a hard-hitting assault on the stampeding Spaniards. Texas, Iowa and Oregon are right behind, their starboard guns blazing. Caught in a steel trap, the Spanish fought with courage born of desperation. Painting from the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library.

1898 war against spain
1898 War against Spain flagship, the USS

  • “I now recommend the adoption of a joint resolution declaring that a state of war exists between the United States of America and the Kingdom of Spain…”

  • "for the recognition of the independence of the people of Cuba, demanding that the Government of Spain relinquish its authority”

A war on two fronts
A war on two fronts flagship, the USS

Lt col theodore roosevelt
Lt. Col. Theodore Roosevelt flagship, the USS

The spanish american war 1898

This 1898 lithograph portrays a highly romantic version of the Battle of San Juan Hill. The famous charge was much less glamorous than pictured here. Theodore Roosevelt, whose Rough Riders had taken nearby Kettle Hill, called to his men to charge the next line of Spanish trenches in the San Juan hills. But in the excitement of the battle, they didn't hear him and Roosevelt found himself charging virtually alone. He had to go back and rally the Rough Riders, who then charged the hill on foot.

American anti imperialist league
American Anti-Imperialist League the

  • The American Anti-Imperialist League was an organization established in the U. S. on June 15, 1898, to battle the annexation of the Philippines as an insular area. The anti-imperialists opposed the expansion because they believed imperialism violated the credo of republicanism, especially the need for "consent of the governed."

  • Jane Addams

  • Andrew Carnegie

  • John Dewey

  • William G. Sumner

  • Samuel Gompers

  • Grover Cleveland

According to treaty of paris spain
According to Treaty of Paris, Spain: the

  • Gave up all rights to Cuba

  • Surrendered Puerto Rico and gave up its possessions in the West Indies

  • Surrendered the island of Guam to the United States

  • Surrendered the Philippines to the United States for a payment of $20,000,000.

Philippine american war 1899 1902
Philippine-American War: 1899-1902 the

  • Emilio Aguinaldo led a fight against U.S. troops when McKinley decides against independence for the Philippines.

Lasting influence
Lasting influence the

  • Major step away from isolationism

  • First war beyond US borders since 1848

  • Empire of colonies/territories in Caribbean & Pacific

  • Leads to the Roosevelt Corollary

  • Great White Fleet

  • Open Door Policy in China

  • 14 Points & leadership in WWI