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SUPERSCALAR ARCHITECTURE. Ahmed Faraz. Definition and Characteristics. Superscalar processing is the ability to initiate multiple instructions during the same clock cycle. A typical Superscalar processor fetches and decodes the incoming instruction stream several instructions at a time.

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SUPERSCALAR ARCHITECTURE


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superscalar architecture

SUPERSCALAR ARCHITECTURE

Ahmed Faraz

ELEC6200-001

definition and characteristics
Definition and Characteristics
  • Superscalar processing is the ability to initiate multiple instructions during the same clock cycle.
  • A typical Superscalar processor fetches and decodes the incoming instruction stream several instructions at a time.
  • Superscalar architecture exploit the potential of ILP(Instruction Level Parallelism).

ELEC6200-001

uninterrupted stream of instructions
Uninterrupted stream of instructions
  • The outcomes of conditional branch instructions are usually predicted in advance to ensure uninterrupted stream of instructions
  • Instructions are initiated for execution in parallel based on the availability of operand data, rather than their original program sequence. This is referred to as dynamic instruction scheduling.
  • Upon completion instruction results are resequenced in the original order.

ELEC6200-001

superscalar execution example
Superscalar Execution Example

- With Register Renaming for WAR and WAW dependencies.

ELEC6200-001

register renaming example
. Register Renaming Example

WAR dependency exist between LD r7,(r3) and SUB r3, r12,r11 instructions

With Register Renaming, the first write to r3 maps to hw3,while the second write

maps to hw20.This converts four instruction dependency chain into 2 two instructions

chains, which can then be executed in parallel if the processor allows out of order

execution.

ELEC6200-001

hardware organization of a superscalar processor
Hardware Organization of a superscalar processor

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conclusion
CONCLUSION
  • It thereby allows faster CPU throughput than would otherwise be possible at the same clock rate.
  • All general-purpose CPUs developed since about 1998 are superscalar.
  • The major problem of executing multiple instructions in a scalar program is the handling of data dependencies. If data dependencies are not effectively handled, it is difficult to achieve an execution rate of more than one instruction per clock cycle.

ELEC6200-001

references
References
  • THE MICRO ARCHITECTURE OF SUPERSCALAR PROCESSORS BY
    • JAMES E. SMITH, MEMBER, IEEE, AND GURINDAR S. SOHI, SENIOR MEMBER, IEEE
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superscalar
  • http://www.seas.gwu.edu/~bhagiweb/cs211/lectures/superscalar.pdf
  • LIMITATION OF SUPERSCALAR MICROPROCESSOR PERFORMANCE
    • THANG TRAN ,ADVANCED MICRO DEVICES, INC. AUSTIN, TEXAS 78741 AND CHUAN-LIN WU,DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING

ELEC6200-001