19.1 Europeans Explore the East • Setting the Stage: • The curiosity of the Renaissance prompts Europeanexplorationofthe world.
Reasons for Exploration • New Trade Routes • Ottoman Empire Controlled Overland Routes to Asia.
Reasons for Exploration • Religion • Spreading Religion and Converting Non Christians • Exploring in the Name of God
Reasons for Exploration • Improved Maps of the World • An improved knowledge and understanding of the world.
Reasons for Exploration • Resources • Gold, Silver, Spices, Silk, etc.
Reasons for Exploration • Expanded Markets for Trade and Resources • India, China, Middle East, Africa, South America, and North America.
Reasons for Exploration • Power • New lands and new opportunities allow for countries to accumulate riches. • Other countries are forced to try and keep up.
New Technology • The Age of Exploration occurred as a result of new technology • Problem • The Europeans were unable to sail into the wind with current configuration of ships. • New Technology • Caravel • Astrolabe • Magnetic Compass • Sextant • Sails on Ships
Portugal Leads the Way • Proximity: Nearest to Africa so established West African trade. • Leadership: Prince Henry backs exploration in search of wealth and power • Navigation school • Believed they would have to sail around Africa
Attempts Around Africa Prince Henry Dias and da Gama Dias Close but No Cigar Sailed around the tip of Africa, but was not able to make it to India. Low on supplies. da Gama Reached the port of Calicut and found spices. Founded Direct Route to India • Helped Capture Ceuta in North Africa • Explored the Coast of Africa. • Found areas with pepper, cinnamon, gold, silver, and jewels. • Navigation School • Attracted ship makers, map makers, instrument makers, scientists, and ship captains.
Columbus A Rival Power • In 1492, Christopher Columbus sails for Spain • Convinces Spanish to support plan to reach Asia by sailing west • Reaches the Americas instead • Opens Americas to exploration and colonization • In 1493, pope divides these lands between Spain and Portugal • Agreement formalized by Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494
Other Countries Go To Asia Other Nations Challenge the Portuguese • English and Dutch begin moving into Asia in 17th century • While the Portuguese and Spanish come to visit, Dutch stay and live in East Indies. • Dutch have more ships (20,000) than any other nation in 1600 • Dutch and English weaken Portuguese control of Asian trade through better business relations • Dutch then overpower English in sea battles • Form Dutch East India Companyfor Asian trade
Other Countries Go To Asia Other Nations Challenge the Portuguese • English establish a trade in Indian fabric • French establish its own East India Company.
Extent of Influence • Europeans control ports and coastal cities • Europeans do not penetrate inside islands and countries. • Typical East Indian is not aware of European influence.