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Organizational Behavior: Group Dynamics and Teamwork. Sociological Criteria of a group. Two or more freely interacting people (Interdependent -interact and influence each other); Mutually accountable for achieving common goals; Common Identity; Collective Norms. . Security. Status. What

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slide1

Organizational Behavior:Group Dynamics and Teamwork

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

sociological criteria of a group
Sociological Criteria of a group
  • Two or more freely interacting people (Interdependent -interact and influence each other);
  • Mutually accountable for achieving common goals;
  • Common Identity;
  • Collective Norms.

.

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

slide3

Security

Status

What

Makes

People

Join

Groups?

Self-

Esteem

Affiliation

Power

Goal

Achievement

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

groups versus teams
Groups versus Teams
  • All teams are groups
  • Teams have task interdependence whereas some groups do not (e.g., group of employees enjoying lunch together)
  • Teams have a positive synergy
  • Skills in teams are complementary

.

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

functions of formal groups
Functions of Formal Groups

Organizational Functions

Individual Functions

1. Accomplish complex, interdependent tasks that are beyond the capabilities of individuals.2. Generate new or creative ideas and solutions.3. Coordinate interdepartmental efforts.4. Provide a problem-solving mechanism for complex problems requiring varied information and assessments.5. Implement complex decisions.6. Socialize and train newcomers.

1. Satisfy the individual’s need for affiliation.2. Develop, enhance, and confirm the individual’s self-esteem and sense of identity.3. Give individuals an opportunity to test and share their perceptions of social reality.4. Reduce the individual’s anxieties and feelings of insecurity and powerless- ness.

5. Provide a problem-solving mechanism for personal and interpersonal problems.

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

theories of group formation
Theories of Group Formation
  • Propinquity
  • Needs, Functions and Goals
  • Interaction
  • Balance Theory
  • Exchange Theory
  • Five-Stage Theory
  • Punctuated Equilibrium Model

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

tuckman s five stage theory of group development
Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theoryof Group Development

Performing

Norming

Adjourning

Storming

Return toIndependence

Forming

Dependence/interdependence

Independence

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

tuckman s five stage theory of group development continued
Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theoryof Group Development (continued)

Forming

Storming

Norming

Performing

IndividualIssues

“How do I fit in?”

“What’s myrole here?”

“What do theothers expectme to do?”

“How can I bestperform my

role?”

GroupIssues

“Why are we here?”

“Why are wefighting overwho’s incharge and whodoes what?”

“Can we agreeon roles andwork as a

team?”

“Can we do thejob properly?”

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

not quite a social group
NOT QUITE A SOCIAL GROUP
  • Category
    • People with common status (girls, doctors, nurses)
  • Aggregate
    • People in the same place (people at the mall)
  • Crowd
    • Temporary cluster of people (spectators at a game, passengers waiting to board an airplane)

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

primary groups
PRIMARY GROUPS
  • Traits
    • Small
    • Personal orientation
    • Enduring (long lasting)
    • Frequent interaction
    • Face-to-face
    • Intimate
    • sense of belonging
    • emotional orientation: bond based on emotions
    • loyalty
  • Primary relationships
    • First group experienced in life
    • Irreplaceable
    • Security
  • Assistance of all kinds
    • Emotional to financial

Examples: the family.

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

secondary groups
SECONDARY GROUPS
  • Traits
    • Large membership: larger than primary groups
    • Goal or activity orientation
    • impersonal and formal
    • Infrequent interaction
    • Secondary relationships
    • Weak emotional ties between persons
    • Short term
  • Importance
    • Networking
    • Career goals

Examples: co-workers, political organizations

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

in groups and out groups
In-group

“group with which people identify and have a sense of belonging”

pronoun “WE”

Out-group

“group that people do not identify with

pronoun “THEY”

Loyalty to INGROUP

Opposition to OUTGROUPS

In-Groups and Out-Groups

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

reference groups
Reference Groups
  • In-groups can be secondary or primary groups, but in either case, they are always reference groups, real or imaginary .
  • a standard to evaluate ourselves

normative function

comparative function

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

group dynamics
Group Dynamics
  • Leadership
  • Roles
  • Norms
  • Status
  • Size
  • Composition
  • Cohesiveness
  • Socio-emotional
  • Instrumental

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

different role requirements
Different Role Requirements
  • Role Identity
  • Role Perception
  • Role Expectations
  • Role Conflict
  • Role Overload
  • Role Ambiguity

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

task roles
Task Roles

RolesDescription

Initiator Suggests new goals or ideas

Information seeker/giver Clarifies key issues

Opinion seeker/giver Clarifies pertinent issues

Elaborator Promote greater understanding

Coordinator Pulls together key ideas and suggestions

Orienter Keeps group headed toward its stated goal(s)

Evaluator Tests group’s accomplishments

Energizer Prods group to move along or to accomplish more

Procedural Technician Performs routine duties

Recorder Performs a “group memory” function

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

maintenance roles
Maintenance Roles

RolesDescription

Encourager Fosters group solidarity

Harmonizer Mediates conflict through reconciliation or humor

Compromiser Helps resolve conflict by meeting others”half way”

Gate Keeper Encourages all group members to participate

Standard setter Evaluates the quality of group processes

Commentator Records comments on group processes/dynamics

Follower Serves as a passive audience

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

individual versus group decision making
Speed

Clear Accountability

Consistent Values

Knowledge & Diversity

High Quality Decisions

Increased Acceptance

Individual versus Group Decision Making

Individuals

Groups

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

group dysfunctions
Group Dysfunctions
  • Conformity (Sharif, Asch, Milgram, Hofling)
  • Groupthink
  • Social loafing
  • Risky shift

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

group conformity studies
GROUP CONFORMITY STUDIES

PRESSURES TO CONFORM TO GROUP DESIRES

  • Asch’s research
    • Willingness to COMPROMISE our own judgments
    • Line experiment
  • Milgram’s research
    • Role authority plays
    • Following orders
  • Janis’ research
    • Negative side of ‘groupthink’
      • Lack of objectivity

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

asch s line experiment
ASCH’S LINE EXPERIMENT

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

symptoms of groupthink
Symptoms of Groupthink
  • Invulnerability
  • Inherent morality
  • Rationalization
  • Stereotyped views of opposition
  • Self-censorship
  • Illusion of unanimity
  • Peer pressure
  • Mindguards

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

how to prevent groupthink
How to Prevent Groupthink
  • Every group member a critical evaluator
  • Avoid rubber-stamp decisions
  • Different groups explore same problems
  • Rely on subgroup debates and outside experts
  • Assign role of devil’s advocate
  • Rethink a consensus

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

conditions for social loafing
Conditions for Social Loafing
  • Low task interdependence
  • Individual output not visible
  • Routine, uninteresting tasks
  • Low task significance
  • Low collectivist values

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

types of teams

General Typology of Teams

Common Forms of Teams

  • Advice
  • Production
  • Project
  • Action
  • Problem solving
  • Self-managed
  • Cross-functional
  • Virtual
Types of Teams

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

virtual teams
Virtual Teams
  • Cross-functional teams that operate across space, time and organizational boundaries using information technology
  • Increasingly possible because of:
    • Technology
    • Knowledge-based work
  • Increasingly necessary because of:
    • Globalization
    • Knowledge management
    • Need for team work

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

survey evidence what self managing teams manage
Survey Evidence: What Self-Managing Teams Manage

Percentage of Companies Saying Their Self-ManagingTeams Perform These Traditional Management Functions by Themselves.

Schedule work assignments 67%Work with outside customers 67Conduct training 59Set production goals/quotas 56Work with suppliers/vendors 44Purchase equipment/services 43Develop budgets 39Do performance appraisals 36Hire co-workers 33Fire co-workers 14

Source: Adapted from “1996 industry Report: What Self-Managing Teams Manage,” Training, October 1996, p. 69

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

team effectiveness model

Organizational and

Team Environment

Team Design

Team

Effectiveness

  • Reward systems
  • Communication systems
  • Physical space
  • Organizational environment
  • Organizational structure
  • Organizational leadership
  • Task characteristics
  • Team size
  • Team composition
  • Achieve organizational goals
  • Satisfy member needs
  • Maintain team survival

Team Processes

  • Team development
  • Team norms
  • Team roles
  • Team cohesiveness
Team Effectiveness Model

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

homogeneous vs heterogeneous teams
Higher satisfaction

Less conflict

Faster team development

More efficient coordination

Performs better on simple tasks

More conflict

Slower team development -- takes longer to agree on norms and goals

Better knowledge and resources for complex tasks

Tend to be more creative

Higher potential for support outside the team

Homogeneous vs. Heterogeneous Teams

Heterogeneous teams

Homogeneous Teams

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

stages of team development

Performing

Norming

Storming

Existing teams might regress back to an earlier stage of development

Adjourning

Stages of Team Development

Forming

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

team norms
Team Norms
  • Norm: “An attitude, opinion, feeling, or action -- shared by two or more people -- that guides their behavior.”
  • Informal rules and expectations team establishes to regulate member behaviors

Normsdevelop through:

    • Explicit statements
    • Critical events in team’s history
    • Primacy
    • Beliefs/values members bring to the team and team experiences

Why Norms Are Enforced

  • Help the group or organization survive
  • Clarify or simplify behavioral expectations
  • Help individuals avoid embarrassing situations
  • Clarify the group’s or organization’s central values and/or unique identity

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

causes of team cohesiveness
Causes of Team Cohesiveness

Member

Similarity

Team

Cohesiveness

External

Challenges

Member

Interaction

Team

Success

Team

Size

Somewhat

Difficult Entry

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

team cohesiveness outcomes
Team Cohesiveness Outcomes

Members of cohesive teams:

  • Want to remain members
  • Willing to share information
  • Strong interpersonal bonds
  • Want to support each other
  • Resolve conflict effectively
  • More satisfied and experience less stress

.

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

slide35

Cohesiveness-Productivity Relationship

Cohesiveness

High

Low

Strong Increase

In Productivity

Moderate Increase

In Productivity

High

Alignment of group and

organizational goals

No Significant Effect

On Productivity

Decrease in

Productivity

Low

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

shaping team players
Shaping Team Players

Rewards

Training

Selection

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

effective teamwork through trust
Effective Teamwork Through Trust

Trust:“Reciprocal faith in others’ intentions and behavior.”

How to Build Trust

  • Communication(keep everyone informed; give feedback; tell the truth).
  • Support(be available and approachable).
  • Respect(delegate; be an active listener).
  • Fairness(give credit where due; objectively evaluate performance).
  • Predictability(be consistent; keep your promises).
  • Competence(demonstrate good business sense and professionalism).

Effective Teamwork Through Cooperation

  • Cooperation
  • Competition

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

effective teamwork through cohesiveness
Effective Teamwork Through Cohesiveness

Cohesiveness:“A sense of we-ness helps team stick together.”

How to Enhance Cohesiveness

  • Socio-Emotional Cohesiveness
  • Keep the team relatively small.
  • Increase the status and prestige of belonging.
  • Encourage interaction and cooperation.
  • Emphasize member,s common characteristics and interests.
  • Point out environmental threats to rally the team.
  • Instrumental Cohesiveness
  • Regularly update and clarify the team,s goals.
  • Give every team member a vital “piece of the action”.
  • Channel each team member,s special talents to the common goals.
  • Recognize and equitably reinforce every member,s contributions.
  • Frequently remind team members they need each other to get the job done.

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

high performance teams
High-performance Teams

Participative

Leadership

Aligned on

Purpose

Shared

Responsibility

Attributes of

high-performance

Teams

High

Communication

Future

Focused

Rapid

Response

Focused on

Task

Creative

Talents

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran