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25 Industrial Park Road, Middletown, CT 06457-1520 · (860) 632-1485. Connecticut State Department of Education · Division of Educational Programs and Services. PBS Day 4. Kim Mearman [email protected] Regina M. Oliver [email protected] Today’s Objectives. Responding to Behaviors

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Pbs day 4

25 Industrial Park Road, Middletown, CT 06457-1520 · (860) 632-1485

Connecticut State Department of Education · Division of Educational Programs and Services

PBS Day 4

Kim Mearman [email protected]

Regina M. Oliver [email protected]

Today s objectives
Today’s Objectives 632-1485

  • Responding to Behaviors

    • Developing a Reward System to Encourage Expected Behaviors

    • Developing Procedures to Discourage Inappropriate Behaviors

  • Monitoring Implementation and Progress of School-Wide/District-Wide PBS

Let s warm up
Let’s Warm Up… 632-1485

  • You are driving along a highway with a 55 mile speed limit. This stretch is known for its heavy traffic and police speed traps. You have passengers you love dearly in your car. You are running five minutes behind schedule to a surprise party.

Let s warm up1
Let’s Warm Up… 632-1485

  • What speed do you drive? Why?

    • Round robin

    • Put responses on Post-its

    • Group like responses together

Essential question
Essential Question… 632-1485

  • Do people have the same reasons for doing the same behavior?

  • Do people have reasons for doing a different behavior?

Let s reflect
Let’s Reflect… 632-1485

  • What motivates behavior?

  • What do we gain?


  • What do we avoid?

Definitions 632-1485


  • Any event that maintains or increases the future probability of the occurrence of the behavior.


Positive Reinforcement: 632-1485

presentation of an event (something gained)

For example

Aliza completes her work in order to get extra computer time

Negative Reinforcement:

escape or avoidance of an event based on the removal of something undesirable.

For example

Malcolm finishes his math after he has to stay in the room for recess, to avoid loosing the whole recess


Reinforcement continuum
Reinforcement Continuum 632-1485


  • Praise

  • Social status and recognition

  • Privileges

  • Contingent access

  • Tangibles

    Primary—edibles, physiological responses

Heather George, University of South Florida

What is the difference
What is the Difference? 632-1485

Dialogue in your team this question:

  • What is the difference between a reward and a reinforcement?

What is the difference1
What is the Difference? 632-1485

  • Reinforcement is the effect a consequence has on a behavior.

  • Reward is a thing given as an acknowledgement for a behavior and may or may not serve as a reinforcer.

Magg, 2001

Definitions 632-1485


  • An event that decreases the likelihood of the reoccurrence of the behavior

Remember when
Remember When… 632-1485

  • Think of a time when you were a child that you did something even though you would be punished if you got caught.

    • Did the threat of the punishment change your behavior?

    • When you were punished for something, how did you feel/perceive that punishment?

What does punishment really do
What Does “Punishment” Really Do? 632-1485

  • Resentment- “This is unfair.”

  • Revenge- “I’ll get them.”

  • Rebellion- “I’ll prove I don’t have to do it their way.”

  • Retreat

    • Sneakiness- “I won’t get caught next time.”

    • Reduced self-esteem- “I am a bad person.”

Nelson, 1999

Think about this

“The key consideration in definitions is that positive reinforcement and punishments are not things but effects.”

“Reinforcement and punishment are naturally occurring phenomena -all behaviors are followed by certain consequences.”

Think About This…

Magg, 2001

Some frequent confusions
Some Frequent Confusions… reinforcement and punishments are

  • Discipline

    • Comes from the Latin root word disciplina, meaning teaching or learning

  • Consequence

    • The event that occurs immediately after a behavior

    • Naturally occurring vs. manipulated

What is the difference2
What is the Difference? reinforcement and punishments are

Dialogue in your team this question:

  • What is the difference between managing and changing behaviors?

Changing vs managing behaviors

Managing Behaviors reinforcement and punishments are

“Controls” the behavior for the moment

Concentrates on the effect the behavior has on the environment

Focuses on consequences

Changing Behaviors

Shaping behavior for long term effects

Determining the effect the environment has on the behavior

Focuses on teaching behaviors

Changing vs. Managing Behaviors

Catch em being good
Catch ‘em Being Good Behaviors

  • The majority of teacher feedback and attention is directed toward undesirable behavior.

  • Catch ‘Em Being Good

    • Bigger payoff in focusing on positive behaviors.

    • Reinforcement increases likelihood of positive behaviors occurring in the future.

Something to think about
Something to Think About… Behaviors

  • Do we provide reinforcers with what an individual wants?

  • Do we make direct connections with the reinforcement to the school-wide expectations?

Guidelines for reinforcement
Guidelines for Reinforcement Behaviors

  • Reward based on school-wide expectations

  • Reward frequently in the beginning

    • Keep ratios of reinforcement high (4:1)

  • Refrain from threatening the loss of rewards as a strategy for motivating desired behaviors

Guidelines for reinforcement1
Guidelines for Reinforcement Behaviors

  • Involve students on your team to help determine meaningful rewards

  • Develop rewards across the continuum

  • Provide time for staff to have conversations about the reward system annually and plan for staff boosters as needed

Tips for teachers
Tips for Teachers Behaviors

Why traditional rewards (e.g., stickers) don’t work for some students

  • The reward is not preferred by the student and insufficient choices have been offered

    • Offer 3 choices and allow the student to pick

  • The natural consequence is more reinforcing (e.g., teacher attention, even if negative)

    • Reinforcement vs. reward

Consider token economy
Consider Token Economy Behaviors

  • Students earn a symbolic representation or token (immediate reinforcement) exchangeable for some reinforcer of value to the student (backup reinforcer).

    Ex. Students earn “Riverside Bucks” to purchase items at the school store.

Meeting token system challenges
Meeting Token System Challenges Behaviors

  • If tangible tokens are used:

    • Ensure an adequate supply

    • Take steps to prohibit counterfeiting

    • Develop a system for “spending” tokens

    • Establish an efficient system of record keeping

Meeting token system challenges1
Meeting Token System Challenges Behaviors

  • Provide staff with ample supplies of tokens

  • Designate a percentage of the tokens to be used to reward students who are not on a teacher’s roll

What have other schools found to be effective
What Have Other Schools BehaviorsFound to be Effective?

  • School bucks to use in a school store on a regular basis (weekly)

  • “Caught Being Good” certificates

  • School Mascot cut-outs with students’ names printed on them--used in lottery drawings once a week or twice a month

Time to work
Time to Work… Behaviors

  • Develop or revise a school-wide system for a continuum of reinforcement that is meaningful to students and aligned with the expectations

    • How will students know how the reinforcement aligns with the expectations?

    • How will students, who are challenged to meet the expectations, be targeted to receive reinforcement?

Time to work1
Time to Work… Behaviors

  • Develop or revise a school-wide system for consistency in staff’s use of reinforcement

    • Increase use of reinforcement with staff to a ration of 4:1

    • Increase the opportunity of staff providing reinforcement school-wide vs. just individual classrooms

Let s share ideas
Let’s Share Ideas… Behaviors

Each school-level team share

  • One innovative idea for reinforcing students

  • One challenge the team will need to wrestle with

What if
What If…? Behaviors

A colleague has come to you asking for Tylenol for a severe headache. You are caught giving this person “drugs”, which you carry regularly with you for your own frequent headaches.

What if1
What If…? Behaviors

As an employee of the Board of Education, you are very aware of the district’s policy on drug free and safe schools. As a result of this act, both you and your colleague are fired.

You are not allowed to appeal this decision because the policy is clear about suspension and termination as they align with violations of district policy.

What if2
What If…? Behaviors

  • How does this make you feel?

  • Is this fair and just? Why or why not?

  • What does this tell us about the influence of policies on decision-making about responding to behaviors?

What if this were a child
What if This Were a Child? Behaviors

  • Virginia - September 1997

    • 9 year old handed out Certs Concentrated Mints

    • One day suspension for possession and distribution of “look-alike” drugs and was interviewed by police

Would this happen our district
Would This Happen Our District? Behaviors

  • Pennsylvania – November, 1998

    • A 1st grader suspended from school for having a 5 inch plastic axe when he dressed up as a fireman for a school Halloween event.

Would this happen our district1

Texas – November, 1999 Behaviors

A 13-year-old asked to write a “scary” Halloween story. When he wrote a story about “shooting up” a school…

Received a passing grade

Referred to the school principal’s office.

School called the police

The child spent 6 days in jail before the court confirmed that no crime had been committed

Would This Happen Our District?

Does zero tolerance work
Does Zero Tolerance Work? Behaviors

  • “Schools that rely heavily on zero tolerance policies continue to be less safe than schools that implement fewer components of zero tolerance.” (Skiba & Peterson, 2000)

  • National data show that serious infractions, which are the target of zero tolerance policies, are rare. These policies are more frequently applied to minor infractions and may actually result in increasing infractions rather than decreasing them. (Skiba, 2000)

Does zero tolerance work1
Does Zero Tolerance Work? Behaviors

  • Zero tolerance has resulted in an increase in suspensions nationally. It has also resulted in an increase in lawsuits from parents. (Skiba, 2000)

  • An appellate court in Pennsylvania recently held that a school’s policy of “zero tolerance” exceeded the authority of the school board.

Talk about this
Talk About This… Behaviors

  • Would a zero tolerance in Columbine prevented those students from shooting?

  • For which student does zero tolerance work?

Are we discriminating
Are We Discriminating? Behaviors

  • The research in suspensions with minority students has been consistent for over 25 years.

    • Black students are 2 to 3 times more likely to be suspended than white students. (Skiba, 2000)

  • Connecticut data shows 10% of the students in general education are suspended, while 19% of the students in special education are suspended.

    (CSDE 99-00 suspension data)

So now talk about this
So Now Talk About This… Behaviors

  • What does our suspension data tell us about minority students and students in special education?

Three components
Three Components Behaviors

Prevention strategies
Prevention Strategies Behaviors

Set up the environment to deter occurrence

of inappropriate behavior.

  • Organizing physical space and transitions times

  • Planning instruction to meet levels, needs, and interests

  • Fostering positive adult/child interaction

A quick review on teaching
A Quick Review on Teaching Behaviors

  • Strategies

    • Problem-solving

    • Coping

    • Replacement behaviors or compensation strategies

  • Skills

    • Specific social skills

Response strategies
Response Strategies Behaviors

  • Provide cues or prompts as a reminder.

  • Provide specific and clear feedback following particular behaviors.

  • Address problem behavior to discourage reoccurrence by (re-) teaching appropriate skills.

Traditional approach to managing challenging behaviors
Traditional Approach to Managing Challenging Behaviors Behaviors



Perception of noncompliance


challenging behaviors

Look to

“Control “or





to have power

over student

Student’s needs



(Knoster and Lapos, 1993)

Typical examples of punitive consequences
Typical Examples of Punitive Consequences Behaviors

  • Loss of recess

  • Detention

  • Office referral

  • Suspension

Effective behavior support
Effective Behavior Support Behaviors



Perception of unmet needs




self control

Look to


needs &



Reductions in

challenging behaviors

by learning alternative



Quality of





strategies based on


Meet needs in a more

socially acceptable


(Knoster and Lapos, 1993)

Why aren t traditional consequences effective
Why Aren’t Traditional Consequences Effective? Behaviors

They aren’t aligned with:

  • School-wide expectations

  • Clearly defined rules

  • A system for teaching expectations and rules

  • A system for rewarding appropriate behaviors

The absence of a school wide plan may lead to
The Absence of a School-wide Plan May Lead To: Behaviors

  • Inconsistent administration of consequences

  • Exclusionary practices that encourage further misbehavior through escape

  • Disproportionate amounts of staff time and attention to inappropriate behaviors

  • Miscommunication among staff, administration, students, and parents

  • Over reliance on punishment of inappropriate behaviors

Let s reflect1
Let’s Reflect… Behaviors

In your team dialogue about this question.

  • Why aren’t traditional consequences effective for some students?

Without a school wide plan for response
Without A School-wide Plan for Response… Behaviors

We may not address the needs of students who:

  • prefer exclusionary consequences to completing a particular task

  • have more fun when they misbehave than when they follow school rules

  • want adult attention and have found that misbehaving is a quick way to get it

  • have not learned the expected behaviors

When responding to inappropriate behavior
When Responding to Inappropriate Behavior Behaviors

  • Be consistent in responding.

  • Eliminate non-instructional and emotionally laden responses.

  • Tie responses to school-wide expectations.

  • Plan and rehearse responses and look for teachable moments.

Developing consequence procedures
Developing Consequence Procedures Behaviors

  • Clearly identify where various behaviors will be managed (classroom vs. office referral)

  • Develop a hierarchy of responses to problem behaviors

  • Include opportunities in the hierarchy of consequences for students to learn and/or practice more acceptable behaviors

When developing consequences
When Developing Consequences… Behaviors

  • Develop a system for notifying:

    • staff involved with the discipline of a particular student

    • parents to avoid inconsistencies

    • students and reminding them of their responsibilities with regard to consequences if the intervention will not be administered immediately

When developing consequences1
When Developing Consequences… Behaviors

  • Establish minimum disciplinary actions for each behavior that requires an office referral

  • Notify staff, students, and parents that administrators may extend disciplinary actions beyond the minimum if the behavior is excessive

  • Refrain from establishing a policy of revoking previously earned rewards

When developing consequences2
When Developing Consequences… Behaviors

  • Establish re-entry procedures for staff and students to follow when a student returns to class

  • Align data collection procedures with the school-wide discipline plan

  • Develop documentation processes that facilitate the analysis of problems at all levels

Time to work2
Time to Work… Behaviors

Develop a list of responses for staff

  • What responses to student behavior are not expectable for staff to use?

  • What responses to student behavior are expectable for staff to use?

  • How will you inform staff of these responses?

Time to work3
Time to Work… Behaviors

  • Develop or revise a school-wide system for responding to major and minor behaviors

    • Provides minor and major behavior responses

    • Clear guidelines for what make an appropriate office referral

Time to work4
Time to Work… Behaviors

  • Develop or revise a school-wide system for aligning a continuum of responses with the expectations

    • How will students know how the response aligns with the expectations?

    • How will the needs of students, who are challenged to meet the expectations, be met?

Levels of evaluation
Levels of Evaluation Behaviors

  • Plan Development

    • Team building, Action planning, Office Referral process

  • Plan Implementation

    • Teaching students and staff, carrying out consequence & reward systems, documentation

  • Student Outcomes

    • Data-based results of behaviors & referrals

Evaluating school wide system set
Evaluating School-wide System—SET Behaviors

  • Survey of students and staff

  • Random questioning

    • At least 80% of students can state school’s expected rules

  • Observations

  • Checklists

Next steps
Next Steps… Behaviors

  • Where are we in the process?

  • Where do we need to go?

  • What do we need to get there?

  • When do we want it done?