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Total Quality Management. Week # 9 Continuous Improvement & Quality Tools Prepared by: Khalid Dahleez Faculty of Commerce – the Islamic University of Gaza This material was collected from different sources. Continuous Improvement.

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total quality management

Total Quality Management

Week # 9

Continuous Improvement & Quality Tools

Prepared by: Khalid Dahleez

Faculty of Commerce – the Islamic University of Gaza

This material was collected from different sources

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

continuous improvement
Continuous Improvement
  • Continuous improvement (CI) is a management philosophy that approaches the challenge of product and process improvement as a never-ending process of achieving small wins.
  • Steps toward CI
      • Train employees in the methods of statistical process control (SPC) and other tools.
      • Make SPC methods a normal aspect of operations.
      • Build work teams and encourage employee involvement.
      • Utilize problem-solving tools within the work teams.
      • Develop a sense of operator ownership in the process.

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

continuous improvement3
Continuous Improvement
  • It is an integral part of a total quality management system.
  • Continuous improvement seeks continual improvement of machinery, materials, labor utilization, and production methods through application of suggestions and ideas of team members.
  • Though pioneered by U.S. firms, this philosophy has become the cornerstone of the Japanese approach to operations.
  • Although management in both Japan and the West historically have implemented CI in manufacturing plants, it has become quite common in services as well.

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

slide4

Tools & Procedures of CI

    • Varies from simple suggestion system based on brain storming to structured programs utilizing statistical process control tools (SPC Tools)
    • Deming wheel (PDCA) cycle
    • Zero defect concept
    • Bench Marking
    • Six sigma
    • Kaizen
  • SPC Tools (Also known as Tools of TQC)
      • Check Sheet
      • Process flow chart
      • Pareto analysis
      • Histogram
      • Scatter diagram
      • Causes & effect diagram (Fish Bone /Ishikawa Diagram)
      • Control charts

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

slide5

The Deming Cycle or PDCA Cycle

PLAN

Plan a change to the process. Predict the effect this change will have and plan how the effects will be measured

ACT

DO

Adopt the change as a permanent modification to the process, or abandon it.

Implement the change on a small scale and measure the effects

STUDY

Study the results to learn what effect the change had, if any.

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

pdsa cycle seven steps or phases
PDSA cycle- seven steps or phases
  • Identify the opportunity
  • Analyze the current process
  • Develop the optimal solution(s)
  • Implement changes
  • Study the results
  • Standardize the solution
  • Plan for the future.

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

seven problem solving tools
Seven Problem Solving Tools
  • Pareto Analysis
  • Flowcharts
  • Checklists
  • Histograms
  • Scatter Diagrams
  • Control Charts
  • Cause-and-Effect Diagrams

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

pareto chart
PARETO CHART

DEFINITION

A Pareto Chart is a vertical bar chart in which the bars are arranged in the descending order of their height starting from the left and prioritize the problems or issues.

USES

  • to prioritize problems
  • to analyze a process
  • to identify root causes
  • to verify that whatever improvement process you implement continues to work

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

pareto analysis

NUMBER OF

CAUSE DEFECTS PERCENTAGE

Poor design 80 64 %

Wrong part dimensions 16 13

Defective parts 12 10

Incorrect machine calibration 7 6

Operator errors 4 3

Defective material 3 2

Surface abrasions 3 2

125 100 %

Pareto Analysis

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

pareto chart10

70

(64)

60

50

40

Percent from each cause

30

20

(13)

(10)

10

(6)

(3)

(2)

(2)

0

Poor Design

Defective parts

Operator errors

Machine calibrations

Defective materials

Surface abrasions

Wrong dimensions

Causes of poor quality

Pareto Chart

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

flow charts

Start/ Finish

Operation

Operation

Decision

Operation

Operation

Operation

Start/ Finish

Decision

Flow Charts
  • Flow charts are nothing but graphical representation of steps involved in a process.
  • Flow charts give in detail the sequence involved in the material, machine and operation that are involved in the completion of the process.
  • Thus, they are the excellent means of documenting the steps that are carried out in a process.

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

check sheet

COMPONENTS REPLACED BY LAB

TIME PERIOD: 22 Feb to 27 Feb 2002

REPAIR TECHNICIAN: Bob

TV SET MODEL 1013

Integrated Circuits ||||

Capacitors |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| ||

Resistors ||

Transformers ||||

Commands

CRT |

Check Sheet
  • Check sheets are nothing but forms that can be used to systematically collect data.
  • Check sheet give the user a place to start and provides the steps to be followed in
  • Collecting the data

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

check sheet13
CHECK SHEET

USES

  • to gather data
  • to test a theory
  • to evaluate alternate solutions
  • to verify that whatever improvement process you implement continues to work

STEPS

  • team agrees on what to observe
  • decide who collects data
  • decide time period for collecting data
  • design Check Sheet
  • collect data
  • compile data in the Check Sheet
  • review Check Sheet

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

histogram

20

15

10

5

0

1 2 6 13 10 16 19 17 12 16 2017 13 5 6 2 1

Histogram

Histograms help in understanding the variation in the process. It also helps in estimating the process capability.

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

scatter diagram

Y

X

Scatter Diagram

It is a graph of points plotted; this graph is helpful in comparing two variables.

The distribution of the points helps in identifying the cause and effect relationship Between two variables.

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

control chart

24

UCL = 23.35

21

c = 12.67

18

15

Number of defects

12

9

6

LCL = 1.99

3

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

Sample number

Control Chart

A control chart is nothing but a run chart with limits. This is helpful in finding the amount and nature of variation in a process.

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

slide17

Histograms do not take into account changes over time.

Control charts can tell us when a process changes

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

cause and effect diagram
Cause and Effect Diagram
  • Developed by Dr Kaoru Ishikawa in 1943. It is also known by the name of 1) Ishikawa diagram, 2)Fishbone diagram.
  • This diagram is helpful in representing the relationship between an effect and the potential or possible causes that influences it.
  • This is very much helpful when one want to find out the solution to a particular problem that could have a number of causes for it and when we are interested in finding out the root cause for it.

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

cause and effect diagram19
Cause and effect Diagram
  • The cause and effect diagram is an investigative tool. This is also called Ishikawa Diagram. Because of its shape, the diagram is also termed as Fishbone Diagram.
  • There is a systematic arrangement of all possible causes which give rise to the effect in Ishikawa diagram. Before taking up problem for a detailed study, it is necessary to list down all possible causes through a brainstorming session so that no important cause is missed. The causes are then divided into major sources or variables.

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

19

ishikawa diagram
Ishikawa Diagram

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

cause and effect diagram21

Measurement

Human

Machines

Faulty

testing equipment

Out of adjustment

Poor supervision

Tooling problems

Incorrect specifications

Lack of concentration

Improper methods

Old / worn

Inadequate training

Quality

Problem

Inaccurate

temperature

control

Defective from vendor

Poor process design

Ineffective quality

management

Not to specifications

Dust and Dirt

Deficiencies

in product design

Material-

handling problems

Environment

Materials

Process

Cause-and-Effect Diagram

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

quality circles

Organization

8-10 members

Same area

Supervisor/moderator

Training

Group processes

Data collection

Problem analysis

Presentation

Implementation

Monitoring

Problem Identification

List alternatives

Consensus

Brainstorming

Solution

Problem results

Problem Analysis

Cause and effect

Data collection and analysis

Quality Circles

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

concept of kaizen
CONCEPT OF KAIZEN

Imai has brought together various management theories, philosophies and tools that have been popular in Japan over the years, as a single concept, Kaizen.

There are many quality experts, whose principles formed the basis of the Kaizen concept.

Kaizen means continuous improvement involving everybody.

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

concept of kaizen24
CONCEPT OF KAIZEN

The term Kaizen originates from the Japanese words, ‘Kai’ that means change, whereas, ‘zen’ means for the better, therefore, it means ‘change for the better’.

It signifies constant and gradual improvement, no matter how small it is.

It should be taking place all the time in every process, involving everyone from all the ranks of management and the workforce.

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

concept of kaizen25
CONCEPT OF KAIZEN
  • In brief, Kaizen system includes:
  • Total employee involvement starting from top management;
  • Empowering people;
  • Listening to them;
  • Promoting zero investment improvements; and
  • Focus on efforts rather than results in Kaizen evaluation and performance appraisal.

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

definition of kaizen
Definition of KAIZEN
  • A selection of better means
  • or a better method for achieving
  • an objective.
  • 2.An accumulation of small changes.
  • A corrective action under constraints.

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

kaizen techniques
KAIZEN TECHNIQUES

KAIZEN techniques consists of the following steps:

  • Identifying problem (s)
  • Examining the problem (s)
  • Finding ideas to solve the problem (s)
  • Developing selected proposal (s)
  • Implementing the proposal (s)

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

multiple kaizen ideas
Multiple KAIZEN ideas

Problem:

  • The man cannot reach the tool box on the shelf.
  • Man is too short to reach the tool box.
  • The tool box is placed too high.

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

Idea source: The Japan HR association

the interaction between man and tool box generates a problem
The interaction between man and tool box generates a problem.

Tool

Box

Man

Problem

Problem does not exit.

Tool

Box

Man

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

multiple kaizen ideas30
Multiple KAIZEN ideas
  • From “man “ stand point,
  • cannot reach Use footstool.
  • From “toolbox” stand point,
  • place it at the lower shelf.

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

solution
Solution

Place the toolbox at a lower shelf

Footstool

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

a man broke a cup at a sink
A man broke a cup at a sink.
  • Problem:

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

Idea source: The Japan HR association

interaction
Interaction

Cup

Man

Sink

Way of

washing

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

cause and effect diagram35
Cause and effect diagram

Man

Method

Wash with hands

Carelessness

Wash quickly

Wash together

My way

Cup

broke

Hard bottom

Breakable materials

Deep

Weak against heat

Sink

Cup

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

kaizen steps
KAIZEN Steps

- Abolition

- Discontinuance

- Exclusion

- Removal

- Simplification

- Centralization

- Synchronization

- Standardization

- Management for exceptions

- Integration

- Combination

- Alternation

- Exchange

- Conversion

- Diversification

- Separation

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

different styles of change
Different styles of change

1. Small change

--- By individual effort, a better way of proceeding a job is considered. (Idea creation)

(KAIZEN)

2. Medium change

--- By group effort, a better way is proposed by following predetermined steps (or rule).

(Small group activities)

3. Big change

--- By investments in new technology or equipment, dramatic alterations are achieved.

(Innovation)

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

10 basic rules for practicing kaizen
10 Basic Rules for Practicing Kaizen
  • Prepare people to accept change for the betterment.
  • Think of how to do it and not why it cannot be done.
  • Do not make excuses? Start by questioning current practices.
  • Do not seek perfection? Do it even if for only 50% of target.
  • Correct mistakes at once.
  • Do not spend money for Kaizen.
  • Wisdom is brought out when faced with hardship.
  • Ask “why”? Five times and seek root causes.
  • Seek the wisdom of ten people rather than the knowledge of one.
  • Kaizen ideas are infinite.

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG

more comments on kaizen

More Comments on Kaizen

Kaizen is a system of accumulated improvement.

The main purpose of Kaizen is to evolve total employee participation and it also helps in building capable work force for an organization.

The results of Kaizen are not very drastic but incremental that’s why continuous improvement leads to accumulated improvement.

Kaizen is a process-oriented thinking and not result oriented thinking:

Total Quality Management - Spring 2010 - IUG